Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Stercorariidae > Stercorarius > Stercorarius longicaudus

Stercorarius longicaudus (Long-tailed Jaeger)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The long-tailed jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus) (known as the long-tailed skua outside the Americas) is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae.This is the smallest of the skua family at 38–58 cm (15–23 in), depending on season and age. However up to 29 cm (11 in) of its length can be made up by the tail which may include the 15 cm (5.9 in) tail streamers of the summer adult.
View Wikipedia Record: Stercorarius longicaudus


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.34166
EDGE Score: 2.12126


Adult Weight [1]  288 grams
Birth Weight [3]  39.2 grams
Female Weight [1]  307 grams
Male Weight [1]  270 grams
Weight Dimorphism [1]  13.7 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic tundra, Alpine tundra
Wintering Geography [2]  Widespread Oceans
Wintering Habitat [2]  Pelagic
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore
Diet - Endothermic [4]  60 %
Diet - Fruit [4]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  30 %
Forages - Ground [4]  100 %
Clutch Size [6]  2
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  1,700,000
Incubation [5]  23 days
Maximum Longevity [5]  14 years
Migration [7]  Intercontinental
Speed [8]  30.42 MPH (13.6 m/s)
Wing Span [8]  39 inches (1 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Clipperton Island shrub and grasslands France Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Tristan Da Cunha-Gough Islands shrub and grasslands United Kingdom Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands    
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Wrangel Island arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Basso Garda 3536 Italy  
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Camargue 546256 France  
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hailuoto, pohjoisranta 9071 Finland  
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
KALDOAIVIN ERÄMAA 868904 Finland  
Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park   Hawaii, United States
KÄSIVARREN ERÄMAA 654562 Finland  
Kevo 176448 Finland  
Kitka 30673 Finland  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kuivasjärvi 1156 Finland  
Lac du Der 16151 France  
Lacs de la forêt d'Orient 58255 France  
Laidauredeltat 4739 Sweden  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru 3940 Wales, United Kingdom  
Liminganlahti 29215 Finland  
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Neusiedler See-Osterreichischer Teil   Austria      
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ostrov Vrangelya (Wrangel Island) Zapovednik Nature Monument III 180 Russia    
Padjelanta 493958 Sweden  
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Pallas-Ounastunturi 146845 Finland  
Plymouth Sound and Estuaries 15820 England, United Kingdom
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
PULJUN ERÄMAA 139246 Finland  
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserve de la Biosphere d'Iroise Biosphere Reserve IV 118 France  
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve 32232 France  
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Table Mountain (Cape Peninsula) National Park II 70141 Western Cape, South Africa
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Tavvavuoma 133292 Sweden  
Tsitsikamma National Park II 34343 Southern Cape, South Africa  
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ukkusiksalik National Park II   Nunavut, Canada
Urdaibaiko Itsasadarra / Ría de Urdaibai 8011 Spain  
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Walker Bay Field Station   Nunavut, Canada  
West Coast National Park II 59916 Western Cape, South Africa
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Hochstetter Forland Greenland (to Denmark) A3, A4i, B1i, B3
Inner parts of Kongsfjorden Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A3, B1i, B3
Käsivarsi fjelds Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Kevo Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Lake Ånnsjön-Storlien Sweden A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Lake Tjålmejaure-Laisdalen valley Sweden A3, B2, C6
Lower Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A3, A4i, A4iii
Middagsfjället: Dörrshöjden Sweden A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Middle reaches of Bolshaya Rogovaya river Russia (European) A1, A3, B2
South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet Greenland (to Denmark) A3, B1i, B2
Taavavuoma Sweden A3, B2, C6
Upper and Middle Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Valley of the Yorkutayakha river Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4iii
Varangerfjord Norway A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i
Vindelfjällen mountains (including Lake Tärnasjön) Sweden A3, B2, C6
Western part of Germania land Greenland (to Denmark) A3, A4i, B1i

Prey / Diet

Dicrostonyx groenlandicus (northern collared lemming)[9]
Dicrostonyx torquatus (Arctic lemming)[10]
Lemmus sibiricus (brown lemming)[10]
Microtus miurus (singing vole)[11]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)1
Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)3
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)3
Canis lupus (Wolf)1
Gulo gulo (Wolverine)1
Mustela erminea (Ermine)2
Mustela nivalis (Least Weasel)1
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)2
Stercorarius pomarinus (Pomarine Skua)3
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)1
Vulpes lagopus (Arctic Fox)4
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)2


Parasitized by 
Aploparaksis borealis[12]
Diplostomum commutatum[12]
Diplostomum repandum <Unverified Name>[12]
Diplostomum volvens[12]

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park; North America; Oceania;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Wiley, R. H and D. S. Lee. 1998. Long-tailed Jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus. in The Birds of North America, No. 365 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc. Philadelphia, Pa.
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
6Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
7Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
8Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
10Predator–prey relationships: arctic foxes and lemmings, Anders Angerbjorn, Magnus Tannerfeldt and Sam Erlinge, Journal of Animal Ecology, Volume 68, Issue 1, Pages 34-49
11Microtus miurus (Rodentia: Cricetidae), F. RUSSELL COLE AND DON E. WILSON, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 42(855):75–89 (2010)
12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access