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Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) is a large gull which breeds in the Arctic regions of the northern hemisphere and the Atlantic coasts of Europe. It is migratory, wintering from in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans as far south as the British Isles and northernmost states of the USA, also on the Great Lakes. A few birds sometimes reach the southern USA and northern Mexico. This species breeds colonially or singly on coasts and cliffs, making a lined nest on the ground or cliff.
View Wikipedia Record: Larus hyperboreus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
0
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
4
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 1.20476
EDGE Score: 0.79062

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  3.11 lbs (1.41 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  73 grams
Female Weight [1]  2.75 lbs (1.25 kg)
Male Weight [1]  3.47 lbs (1.58 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  26.2 %
Female Maturity [2]  4 years
Male Maturity [2]  4 years
Clutch Size [2]  3
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Incubation [2]  27 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  21 years
Speed [3]  29.97 MPH (13.4 m/s)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Novosibirsk Islands arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wrangel Island arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Cabrillo National Monument V 149 California, United States
Caerlaverock National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Crosswinds Marsh Nature Preserve 1050 Michigan, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Fathom Five National Marine Park II   Ontario, Canada
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fort Matanzas National Monument III 269 Florida, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park   Hawaii, United States
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Little St. Simons Island   Georgia, United States
Loch Maree Complex 38882 Scotland, United Kingdom
Loch a`Phuill 374 Scotland, United Kingdom
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Marismas de Santoña y Noja 16319 Spain    
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
North Bull Island Nature Reserve IV 3544 Ireland  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Uist Machair 7533 Scotland, United Kingdom
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ostrov Vrangelya (Wrangel Island) Zapovednik Nature Monument III 180 Russia    
Oxford Meadows 657 England, United Kingdom  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere d'Iroise Biosphere Reserve IV 118 France  
River Spey 14158 Scotland, United Kingdom
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Tawas Point State Park 183 Michigan, United States
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Ukkusiksalik National Park II   Nunavut, Canada
Urdaibaiko Itsasadarra / Ría de Urdaibai 8011 Spain  
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Vättern (östra) 158858 Sweden  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Bjørnøya (Bear Island) Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2  
Blow River Delta (Shingle Point to Tent Island) Canada A4i, A4iii  
Breidafjördur Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3
Inner parts of Kongsfjorden Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A3, B1i, B3
Kugaluk River Canada A4i, A4iii
Lower Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A3, A4i, A4iii
Nunaluk Spit to Herschel Island Canada A4i, A4iii  
Quidi Vidi Lake Canada A4i
Rasmussen Lowlands Canada A4i, A4iii
South-east Svalbard Nature Reserve Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Japan Japan No

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Alcataenia dominicana[4]
Alcataenia micracantha[4]
Anisakis simplex[4]
Aploparaksis larina[4]
Apophallus muehlingi[4]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[5]
Contracaecum osculatum[4]
Corynosoma strumosum[4]
Cotylurus cornutus <Unverified Name>[4]
Cotylurus pileatus[4]
Cryptocotyle concava[4]
Cryptocotyle lingua[4]
Diplostomum commutatum[4]
Diplostomum huronense[4]
Diplostomum rutili[4]
Diplostomum spathaceum[4]
Diplostomum volvens[4]
Echinoparyphium recurvatum[4]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[4]
Gymnophallus deliciosus[4]
Himasthla elongata[4]
Hymenolepis arctowskii[4]
Hymenolepis haldemani[4]
Laricanthus lateralis <Unverified Name>[4]
Megabothris calcarifer[5]
Mesorchis denticulatus[4]
Microphallus similis[4]
Microsomacanthus ductilis[4]
Microsomacanthus spasskii <Unverified Name>[4]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[4]
Paracuaria tridentata <Unverified Name>[4]
Paricterotaenia porosa[4]
Parvatrema affinis <Unverified Name>[4]
Plagiorchis nanus[4]
Plagiorchis ovoidalis <Unverified Name>[4]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[4]
Stegophorus stellaepolaris <Unverified Name>[4]
Tetrabothrius erostris[4]
Tetrabothrius mawsoni[4]
Tetrabothrius morschtini <Unverified Name>[4]
Tetrameres skrjabini <Unverified Name>[4]

Range Map

Link to Map
North America; Oceania; St. Kilda National Nature Reserve; Walker Bay Field Station;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Banks R.C., 2011-09-22, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Cramp, S.; Simmons, K.E.L.; Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa Vols 1-9. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 4Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 5International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Crosswinds Marsh, Wayne County, Michigan GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Tawas Point State Park
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access