Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Larus > Larus glaucoides

Larus glaucoides (Iceland Gull)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Iceland gull (Larus glaucoides) is a medium size gull which breeds in the Arctic regions of Canada and Greenland, but not Iceland, where it is only seen in the winter. The genus name is from Latin Larus which appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird. The specific glaucoides denotes its resemblance to Larus glaucus, a synonym of Larus hyperboreus, the glaucous gull; -oides is Ancient Greek and means "resembling". The American taxon Kumlien's gull is often considered a subspecies, L. g. kumlieni, of Iceland gull.
View Wikipedia Record: Larus glaucoides


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 1.05455
EDGE Score: 0.720055


Adult Weight [1]  2.09 lbs (946 g)
Female Maturity [1]  4 years
Male Maturity [1]  4 years
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic coastal
Wintering Geography [2]  Northern U.S./Canada
Wintering Habitat [2]  Beaches and estuaries, Coastal marine, Freshwater lakes and rivers
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore, Granivore
Diet - Endothermic [3]  20 %
Diet - Fish [3]  50 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  20 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  10 %
Forages - Ground [3]  30 %
Forages - Water Surface [3]  50 %
Forages - Underwater [3]  20 %
Clutch Size [1]  2
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  200,000
Incubation [1]  25 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  33 years
Speed [4]  35.57 MPH (15.9 m/s)
Wing Span [5]  4.8 feet (1.45 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Cabrillo National Monument V 149 California, United States
Caldeira e Capelinhos - Ilha do Faial 5130 Portugal    
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Costa Sul e Sudoeste - Ilha das Flores 568 Portugal    
Crosswinds Marsh Nature Preserve 1050 Michigan, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Dungeness 7966 England, United Kingdom
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Fathom Five National Marine Park II   Ontario, Canada
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jepson Prairie Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 1553 California, United States
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Little St. Simons Island   Georgia, United States
Loch a`Phuill 374 Scotland, United Kingdom
Loch Maree Complex 38882 Scotland, United Kingdom
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Lower Derwent Valley 2263 England, United Kingdom
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Bull Island Nature Reserve IV 3544 Ireland  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Overstrand Cliffs 74 England, United Kingdom    
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere d'Iroise Biosphere Reserve IV 118 France  
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
St. Kilda National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom    
Tawas Point State Park 183 Michigan, United States
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Urdaibaiko Itsasadarra / Ría de Urdaibai 8011 Spain  
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Baie des Escoumins et Grandes-Bergeronnes Canada A4i
Digges Sound Canada A4ii, A4iii
Quidi Vidi Lake Canada A4i
Søndre Isortoq Greenland (to Denmark) A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3
Sermilinnguaq Greenland (to Denmark) A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3
Tadoussac Canada A4i, A4iii


Parasitized by 
Choanotaenia porosa <Unverified Name>[6]
Cryptocotyle lingua[6]
Hymenolepis ductilis <Unverified Name>[6]
Microphallus similis[6]
Microsomacanthus ductilis[6]
Tetrabothrius erostris[6]

Range Map

North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
5British Trust for Ornithology
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Crosswinds Marsh, Wayne County, Michigan
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Tawas Point State Park
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access