Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Larus > Larus glaucescens
 

Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)

Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) is a large, white-headed gull. The genus name is from Latin Larus which appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird. The specific glaucescens is New Latin for "glaucous" from the Ancient Greek, glaukos. English "Glaucous" denotes a bluish-green or grey colour. The glaucous-winged gull nests in the summer, and each pair produces two or three chicks which fledge at six weeks.
View Wikipedia Record: Larus glaucescens

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
0
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
3
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 1.03455
EDGE Score: 0.710275

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  2.34 lbs (1.06 kg)
Birth Weight [4]  71 grams
Female Weight [2]  2.09 lbs (946 g)
Male Weight [2]  2.60 lbs (1.18 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  24.7 %
Breeding Habitat [3]  Coastal cliffs and islands, Coastal marine
Wintering Geography [3]  Pacific Coast
Wintering Habitat [3]  Beaches and estuaries, Coastal marine
Diet [5]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Endothermic [5]  20 %
Diet - Fish [5]  30 %
Diet - Invertibrates [5]  30 %
Diet - Scavenger [5]  20 %
Forages - Ground [5]  30 %
Forages - Water Surface [5]  40 %
Forages - Underwater [5]  30 %
Clutch Size [4]  3
Clutches / Year [6]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  380,000
Incubation [4]  27 days
Maximum Longevity [4]  32 years
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [6]  4.4 feet (1.34 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northwestern Hawaii scrub United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands    
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Cabrillo National Monument V 149 California, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Gulf Islands National Park National Park Reserve II 8785 British Columbia, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Jepson Prairie Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 1553 California, United States
Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park   Hawaii, United States
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ostrov Vrangelya (Wrangel Island) Zapovednik Nature Monument III 180 Russia    
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
San Juan Island National Historical Park III 1674 Washington, United States
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Baynes Sound Canada A4i
Boundary Bay: Roberts Bank: Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary) Canada A4i, A4iii
Chain Islets and Great Chain Islet Canada A4i
Copper River Delta USA A4i
Kyuquot Channel Islets Canada A4i
Lambert Channel/Hornby Island Waters Canada A4i, A4iii
Northern Montague Island USA A4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Acmaea mitra (whitecap limpet)[7]
Aethia cristatella (Crested Auklet)[8]
Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[8]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[8]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[8]
Balanus glandula (Acorn barnacle)[8]
Branta bernicla (Brent Goose)[8]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[8]
Chen canagica (Emperor Goose)[8]
Clinocardium nuttallii (Nuttall cockle)[8]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[8]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[8]
Cololabis saira (Skipper)[8]
Cryptochiton stelleri (Giant Pacific Chiton)[7]
Cucumaria pseudocurata[7]
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)[8]
Dermasterias imbricata (Leather sea star)[7]
Doryteuthis opalescens (california market squid)[9]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[10]
Enteroctopus dofleini (North Pacific giant octopus)[8]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[8]
Hemigrapsus nudus (purple shore crab)[7]
Hexagrammos lagocephalus (Rock greenling)[8]
Katharina tunicata (black katy)[7]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[8]
Lampetra ayresii (Parasitic river lamprey)[8]
Leptasterias hexactis (Six-rayed sea star)[7]
Leptasterias tenera (Slender sea star)[8]
Leukoma staminea (Pacific littleneck)[8]
Lottia digitalis (ribbed limpet)[7]
Lottia pelta (shield limpet)[7]
Lottia scutum (plate limpet)[7]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[11]
Mesocentrotus franciscanus (Red sea urchin)[7]
Mopalia ciliata (Mossy chiton)[7]
Mopalia muscosa (Mossy Mopalia)[7]
Mopalia swanii[8]
Mytilus californianus (California mussel)[7]
Mytilus trossulus (foolish mussel)[7]
Nereis vexillosa (Clam worm)[7]
Nucella canaliculata (channeled dogwinkle)[7]
Nucella emarginata (emarginate dogwinkle)[7]
Nucella lamellosa (frilled dogwinkle)[7]
Oedignathus inermis (granular claw crab)[7]
Oncorhynchus nerka (sockeye salmon or kokanee)[8]
Orthasterias koehleri (Rainbow sea star)[7]
Petrolisthes cinctipes (flat porcelain crab)[7]
Petrolisthes eriomerus (flattop crab)[7]
Pisaster ochraceus (Ochre sea star)[7]
Podilymbus podiceps (Pied-billed Grebe)[8]
Pollicipes polymerus (leaf barnacle)[7]
Polysticta stelleri (Steller's Eider)[8]
Porichthys notatus (Midshipman)[8]
Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Cassin's Auklet)[8]
Pugettia venetiae (Venice kelp crab)[8]
Pycnopodia helianthoides (Sunflower sea star)[7]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[8]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[8]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[8]
Semibalanus cariosus (thatched barnacle)[7]
Solaster stimpsoni (Striped sun star)[7]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[8]
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Green sea urchin)[7]
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Purple sea urchin)[7]
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)[8]
Tegula funebralis (black tegula)[7]
Thysanoessa spinifera[8]
Trichodon trichodon (Sandfish)[8]
Zalembius rosaceus (Pink surfperch)[10]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alca torda (Razorbill)1
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)1
Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)1
Arctocephalus townsendi (Guadalupe Fur Seal)1
Artedius harringtoni (Scalyhead sculpin)1
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)1
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)1
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)1
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)2
Bucephala islandica (Barrow's Goldeneye)1
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)1
Caulolatilus princeps (Bighead tilefish)1
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)1
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)1
Citharichthys sordidus (Sanddab)1
Clinocottus analis (Woolly sculpin)1
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)1
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)1
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)1
Enhydra lutris (Sea Otter)1
Eopsetta jordani (Petrale sole)1
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)1
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)1
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)1
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)1
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)1
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)1
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)1
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)1
Genyonemus lineatus (White croaker)1
Gobiesox maeandricus (Northern clingfish)2
Haematopus bachmani (Black Oystercatcher)6
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Hexagrammos decagrammus (Kelp greenling)1
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)2
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)1
Kogia breviceps (Pygmy Sperm Whale)1
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)1
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)2
Larus californicus (California Gull)1
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Larus heermanni (Heermann's Gull)1
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)2
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)1
Lissodelphis borealis (Northern Right Whale Dolphin)1
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)1
Melanitta fusca (White-winged Scoter)1
Melanitta perspicillata (Surf Scoter)1
Merluccius productus (Whiting)1
Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal)1
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)1
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)1
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)1
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)1
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)1
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)1
Phoca largha (Spotted Seal)1
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)2
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)1
Phoebastria nigripes (Black-footed Albatross)1
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)1
Puffinus creatopus (Pink-footed Shearwater)1
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)1
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)1
Pusa hispida (Ringed Seal)1
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)1
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)1
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)2
Sebastes caurinus (Copper rockfish)1
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)1
Sebastes goodei (Rockfish)1
Semicossyphus pulcher (California sheephead)2
Somateria spectabilis (King Eider)1
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)1
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)1
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)1
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)1

Predators

Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)[8]
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)[8]
Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)[8]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[8]
Homo sapiens (man)[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Branchiopodataenia pacifica[12]
Corynosoma strumosum[12]
Dibothriocephalus dalliae[12]
Diplostomum huronense[12]
Erschoviorchis lintoni[12]
Hymenolepis californicus[12]
Hymenolepis fryei <Unverified Name>[12]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[12]
Tetrabothrius cylindraceus[12]
Wardium fryei[12]

Range Map

North America; Oceania;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2Verbeek, NAM 1993. Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens). In The Birds of North America, No. 59 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington DC
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
6del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
7Wootton, J. Timothy. "Estimates and tests of per capita interaction strength: diet, abundance, and impact of intertidally foraging birds." Ecological Monographs 67.1 (1997): 45+. Academic OneFile. Web. 23 July 2010
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
10Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository.
11Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access