Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Larus > Larus marinus
 

Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), also known as the greater black-backed gull or, informally, as the black-back, is the largest member of the gull family. It breeds on the European and North American coasts and islands of the North Atlantic and is fairly sedentary, though some black-backs move farther south or inland to large lakes or reservoirs. The adult great black-backed gull has a white head, neck and underparts, dark grey wings and back, pink legs and yellow bill.
View Wikipedia Record: Larus marinus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
0
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
4
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 1.20809
EDGE Score: 0.79213

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  3.66 lbs (1.66 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  85 grams
Female Weight [1]  3.28 lbs (1.49 kg)
Male Weight [1]  4.03 lbs (1.83 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  22.9 %
Female Maturity [3]  5 years
Male Maturity [3]  5 years
Breeding Habitat [2]  Beaches and estuaries, Wetlands
Wintering Geography [2]  Eastern U.S./Canada
Wintering Habitat [2]  Beaches and estuaries, Coastal marine, Freshwater lakes and rivers
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Endothermic [4]  20 %
Diet - Fruit [4]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  20 %
Diet - Scavenger [4]  20 %
Diet - Seeds [4]  20 %
Forages - Ground [4]  80 %
Forages - Water Surface [4]  20 %
Clutch Size [3]  3
Clutches / Year [5]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  600,000
Incubation [3]  27 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  27 years
Migration [6]  Intracontinental
Speed [7]  30.65 MPH (13.7 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  5.5 feet (1.67 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Puerto Rican dry forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican moist forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Alderney West Coast and the Burhou Islands 38620 United Kingdom      
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Archipel de Glénan 145273 France  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
BAHIA DE CADIZ 26000 Spain  
Baie de Morlaix 67680 France    
Baie de Saint-Brieuc - Est 33327 France  
Baie de Vilaine 16929 France  
Baie du Mont Saint Michel 117800 France  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Borkum-Riffgrund 154559 Germany      
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Camargue 546256 France  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chausey 203679 France  
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
DELTA EVROU 31031 Greece  
DELTA EVROU KAI DYTIKOS VRACHIONAS 24359 Greece  
DELTA NESTOU KAI LIMNOTHALASSES KERAMOTIS KAI NISOS THASOPOULA 36139 Greece  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Dolina Dolnej Odry 152337 Poland  
Dolina Dolnej Wisly 82926 Poland  
Dolina Srodkowej Wisly 76054 Poland  
Dolna Odra 72985 Poland  
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Estuário do Sado 60868 Portugal  
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Golfe du Morbihan 23480 France  
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Inner Galway Bay SPA 30781 Ireland  
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kirkkonummen saaristo (SPA) 35173 Finland  
Kitka 30673 Finland  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
LIMNES VISTONIS, ISMARIS - LIMNOTHALASSES PORTO LAGOS, ALYKI PTELEA, XIROLIMNI, KARATZA 45016 Greece  
LITTORAL AUGERON 52930 France    
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Luodon saaristo 35731 Finland    
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
MARISMAS DEL ODIEL 16387 Spain  
MARTIMOAAPA-LUMIAAPA-PENIKAT 34807 Finland  
Millesvik och Lurö skärgård 58966 Sweden  
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Mor Braz 99524 France    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Niederung der Unteren Havel 69882 Germany  
Närpiön saaristo 29228 Finland  
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
PERTUIS CHARENTAIS - ROCHEBONNE 2024431 France  
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve 32232 France  
SPA Pommersche Bucht 495241 Germany    
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Solent Maritime 27985 England, United Kingdom
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Sylter Außenriff 1313190 Germany      
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Unterelbe 41304 Germany  
Unteres Odertal 29097 Germany  
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Värmlandsskärgården 53005 Sweden  
Vättern (östra) 158858 Sweden  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Zalew Wislany 79627 Poland  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Archipel de Molène France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3, C3, C6
Archipel des Glénan France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6
Île aux Pommes Canada A4i
Île Brion Canada A4i, A4ii  
Îles Sainte-Marie Canada A4iii
Baie de Gaspé Canada A4i, A4iii  
Baie des Escoumins et Grandes-Bergeronnes Canada A4i
Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Blasket Islands Ireland A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6    
Bonaventure Island Canada A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Breidafjördur Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3
Caithness Cliffs United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
Calf of Eday United Kingdom A4iii, B3, C4  
Cap Gris-nez France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4  
Copinsay United Kingdom B3
Corossol Island Canada A4i
Duvillaun Islands Ireland B1i, B2, B3, C2  
Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago Finland A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6  
Estuaire de la Canche France A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4, C6  
Faray and Holm of Faray United Kingdom B2, B3  
High Island Ireland B2, B3, C7
Hirsholmene Denmark A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C6  
Hornøy and Reinøy Norway A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3, C4  
Hoy United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Ile d'Ouessant France B3, C6    
Iles Chausey France A4i, B1i, B3, C2, C6
Inishduff Ireland B3  
Isle of Man Sea Cliffs United Kingdom B1i, B2, B3
Isles of Scilly United Kingdom A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6    
Kirkkonummi archipelago Finland B3, C2
Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago Finland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C4  
Merenkurkku archipelago Finland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B1iv, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Nordre Rønner Denmark B3, C7  
North Rona and Sula Sgeir United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6    
North-east Scania coastline and archipelago Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Northwestern Kattegat Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Outer Stockholm archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Pentland Firth Islands United Kingdom A4iii, B3, C2, C4, C6
Quidi Vidi Lake Canada A4i
Quoddy Region Canada A4i, A4iii
Rauma and Luvia archipelagos Finland B2, B3, C2
Rothiesholm Peninsula, Stronsay United Kingdom B3  
Sable Island, Nova Scotia Canada A4i    
Saltee Islands Ireland B2, B3, C7
Saltholm Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3, C2, C3, C4
Seven islands Russia (European) A4iii, B1i, B2, B3  
Shigawake-Newport Canada A4i
Sklinna Norway A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3    
Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago Finland A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Tolsta Head, Lewis United Kingdom B3  
Treshnish Isles United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C4, C6
Väderöarna Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[8]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[8]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[8]
Asterias rubens (Starfish)[8]
Cerastoderma edule (Common cockle)[8]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[8]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[8]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[8]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[9]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[10]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[8]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[8]
Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel)[8]
Oryctolagus cuniculus (European Rabbit)[11]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[8]
Puffinus puffinus (Manx Shearwater)[11]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[8]
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Green sea urchin)[12]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alca torda (Razorbill)1
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)1
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)1
Aquila adalberti (Spanish Imperial Eagle)1
Aquila fasciata (Bonelli's Eagle)1
Artediellus atlanticus (Atlantic hookear)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)1
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)1
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)1
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)1
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)1
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)1
Calonectris diomedea (Scopoli's Shearwater)1
Caracara plancus (Southern Crested Caracara)1
Carcharhinus falciformis (Silky shark)1
Careproctus reinhardti (Longfin seasnail)1
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)1
Crossaster papposus (spiny sun star, common sun star)1
Cynoscion regalis (Weakfish)1
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)1
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)1
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)1
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)1
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)1
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)1
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)2
Gadus morhua (rock cod)2
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)1
Gypaetus barbatus (Bearded Vulture)1
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Horseshoe Snake)1
Hieraaetus pennatus (Booted Eagle)1
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)1
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)1
Istiophorus platypterus (Atlantic sailfish)1
Isurus oxyrinchus (Short-finned mako)1
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)1
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)1
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)3
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)2
Liparis gibbus (Dusky snailfish)1
Lycodes reticulatus (Arctic eelpout)1
Lynx pardinus (Iberian Lynx)1
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)1
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)1
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)1
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)1
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)1
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)1
Neophron percnopterus (Egyptian Vulture)1
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)1
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)1
Parabuteo unicinctus (Harris's Hawk)1
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)1
Phoca largha (Spotted Seal)1
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)1
Phoebastria nigripes (Black-footed Albatross)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)2
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)1
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder)1
Puffinus gravis (Greater Shearwater)1
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)1
Pusa hispida (Ringed Seal)1
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)2
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)1
Somateria spectabilis (King Eider)1
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)1
Stercorarius skua (Great Skua)1
Tautogolabrus adspersus (Sea perch)1
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)1
Triglops murrayi (Moustache sculpin)1
Uria aalge (Common Murre)1
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)1
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)1
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)1
Zamenis scalaris (Ladder Snakes)1

Predators

Cryptocotyle lingua[8]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aploparaksis cirrosa[13]
Apophallus muehlingi[13]
Austrobilharzia variglandis[13]
Capillaria contorta <Unverified Name>[13]
Choanotaenia porosa <Unverified Name>[13]
Contracaecum spiculigerum[13]
Cosmocephalus aduncus <Unverified Name>[13]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[13]
Cotylurus platycephalus <Unverified Name>[13]
Cryptocotyle concava[13]
Cryptocotyle lingua[13]
Diplostomum commutatum[13]
Diplostomum spathaceum[13]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[13]
Gymnophallus deliciosus[13]
Hemistomum pileatum <Unverified Name>[13]
Himasthla leptosoma[13]
Himasthla militaris[13]
Hymenolepis ductilis <Unverified Name>[13]
Ligula digramma <Unverified Name>[13]
Ligula intestinalis[13]
Maritrema lepidum[13]
Maritrema subdolum[13]
Microphallus similis[13]
Notocotylus attenuatus[13]
Notocotylus ephemera[13]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[13]
Paricterotaenia porosa[13]
Stephanoprora pseudoechinata[13]
Stephanoprora pseudoechinatum <Unverified Name>[13]
Tetrabothrius erostris[13]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Central Park Zoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Turtle Back Zoo

Range Map

Caribbean; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Belopol'skii L.O. 1957. Ecology of sea colony birds of the Barents Sea. Izdat. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad.
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5British Trust for Ornithology
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Feeding Spectrum and Trophic Relationships of Short-finned Squid (Illex illecebrosus) in the Northwest Atlantic, Yu. M. Froerman, NAFO Sci. Coun. Studies, 7: 67-75 (1984)
10The role of capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the foodweb of the Barents Sea, A. V. Dolgov, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 1034–1045. 2002
11Changes in the diet of Great Black-backed Gulls Larus marinus on Skomer Island 1958- 1992, Jim Poole, SEABIRD 17; 50-55
12Foods and predators of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in Newfoundland waters, J. H. HIMMELMAN and D. H. STEELE, Marine Biology 9, 315-322 (1971)
13Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Ramsar Sites Information Service
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access