Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Larus > Larus fuscus
 

Larus fuscus (Lesser Black-backed Gull)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) is a large gull that breeds on the Atlantic coasts of Europe. It is migratory, wintering from the British Isles south to West Africa. It is a regular winter visitor to the east coast of North America, probably from the breeding population in Iceland. This species breeds colonially on coasts and lakes, making a lined nest on the ground or a cliff. Normally, three eggs are laid.
View Wikipedia Record: Larus fuscus

Infraspecies

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.69 lbs (766 g)
Female Maturity [1]  4 years
Male Maturity [1]  4 years
Clutch Size [2]  2
Maximum Longevity [1]  35 years
Migration [3]  Intercontinental
Speed [4]  29.30 MPH (13.1 m/s)
Wing Span [4]  4.4 feet (1.34 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Aldabra Island xeric scrub Seychelles Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East African mangroves Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia Afrotropic Mangroves
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Granitic Seychelles forests Seychelles Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Socotra Island xeric shrublands Yemen Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra South Africa, France, Australia Antarctic Tundra    
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Alsó-Tisza-völgy 88306 Hungary  
Archipel de Glénan 145273 France  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badies de Pollença i Alcúdia 75991 Spain    
Baie de Morlaix 67680 France    
Baie du Mont Saint Michel 117800 France  
Banc d'Arguin National Park II 2949017 Mauritania
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Borkum-Riffgrund 154559 Germany      
CAMPIÑAS DE SEVILLA 88303 Spain  
Camargue 546256 France  
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Chausey 203679 France  
Costa Sudoeste 183883 Portugal  
Crau 97194 France  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Doggerbank 419820 Germany      
Dolina Dolnej Wisly 82926 Poland  
Dolina Srodkowej Wisly 76054 Poland  
EMBALSE DE ORELLANA Y SIERRA DE PELA 105291 Spain  
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Estuário do Tejo 110634 Portugal  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Gorges de la Loire 145350 France  
Gorges de la Sioule 64420 France  
Haut Val d'Allier 145560 France  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
KOILADA KAI EKVOLES SPERCHEIOU - MALIAKOS KOLPOS 117491 Greece  
Kevo 176448 Finland  
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
Kura kurgu 476839 Estonia  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LIMNES KAI LIMNOTHALASSES TIS THRAKIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 72787 Greece  
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
Lahemaa 183898 Estonia  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Mor Braz 99524 France    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Muddus 124105 Sweden  
NOTIA MANI 78232 Greece  
NOTIODYTIKI CHERSONISOS, APOLITHOMENO DASOS LESVOU 71214 Greece    
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
OROS OCHI, PARAKTIA ZONI KAI NISIDES 82497 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Ostoja Slowinska 79446 Poland    
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
PERTUIS CHARENTAIS - ROCHEBONNE 2024431 France  
Pallas-Ounastunturi 146845 Finland  
Parc National de la Lopé National Park 1227419 Gabon  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Pays des Couzes 128132 France  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Pärnu lahe 270781 Estonia  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
SPA Pommersche Bucht 495241 Germany    
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Seevogelschutzgebiet Helgoland 398663 Germany    
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Serrà d'Espadà 161443 Spain  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Socotra Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 6626477 Yemen  
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Suha Reka 63678 Bulgaria  
Sylter Außenriff 1313190 Germany      
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Tête de Canyon du Cap Ferret 903514 France      
VALLE DEL TIÉTAR 159079 Spain  
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Võrtsjärve 73464 Estonia  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waddenzee 672193 Netherlands    
West Estonian Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 3854844 Estonia  
l'Albufera 72366 Spain  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Abdullah Gharib lagoons Yemen A4i, B1i, B3
Ailsa Craig United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C4
Al Batinah coast Oman A4i, B1i    
Albufeira do Caia Portugal A1, A4i, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C6
Alde: Ore Estuary United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Almorness Point and Hestan Island United Kingdom B3
Archipel de Molène France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3, C3, C6
Archipel des Glénan France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6
Archipel des Sept-Iles France A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6  
Ørkenen and Totten (Anholt Island) Denmark B3, C7  
Baie d'Ad Dakhla Morocco A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Banc d'Arguin National Park Mauritania A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Barr al Hikman Oman A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Berezovye islands of Vyborg Bay Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i
Björn archipelago Sweden A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6  
Blasket Islands Ireland A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6    
Bowland Fells United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6
Cap Blanc Mauritania A4i, A4iii
Cap Gris-nez France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4  
Cardigan Island United Kingdom A4i, B1i, B3, C3
Cádiz bay Spain A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Dakhla area Morocco A3, A4i
Delta du Saloum Senegal A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Dolgy Reef and Bol'shoi Fiskar archipelagos Russia (European) B1i, B2, B3  
Duqm Oman A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Estuaire de la Canche France A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4, C6  
Farne Islands United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Firth of Forth United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Firth of Forth Islands United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C
Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes Spain A1, A4i, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C6
Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Hirsholmene Denmark A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C6  
Horse Island United Kingdom B3
Ile d'Ouessant France B3, C6    
Iles Saint Marcouf France B3, C7
Inishtrahull Ireland B2, B3, C7  
Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon Spain A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Isles of Scilly United Kingdom A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6    
Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park Finland B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake Finland B3, C7
Kjørholmane seabird reserve Norway A4i, B1i, B3  
Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago Finland A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Krunnit archipelago Finland A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Lista wetland system Norway A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Little Cumbrae Island United Kingdom A4i, B1i, B3, C3
Littoral Augeron France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4  
Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh Ireland B2, B3, C6  
Masirah island Oman A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3
Merenkurkku archipelago Finland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B1iv, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Morecambe Bay United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Nordre Rønner Denmark B3, C7  
Northwestern Kattegat Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Oura and Enskeri archipelagos Finland B2, B3, C6
Outer Stockholm archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita Spain A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1iii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Rahja archipelago Finland B1i, B2, B3, C3  
Ras al Hadd Oman A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3  
Ribble and Alt Estuaries United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Salalah Bird Sanctuary Oman A4i, B1i, B2
Saltee Islands Ireland B2, B3, C7
Schiermonnikoog Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Severn Estuary United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Skjernøy, South Skerries Norway A4i, B1i, B3  
Skokholm and Skomer United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C  
Southern coast of the Neva bay Russia (European) A4i, B1i
Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3, C3, C4
Strait of Gibraltar Gibraltar (to UK) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C1, C2, C3, C4
Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve Gambia A1, A4i, A4iii
Terschelling: De Boschplaat Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Texel: Dunes and Hors Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C4, C6  
The Archipelago of Nothern Hälsingland Sweden B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C6  
Upper Solway Flats and Marshes United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Uusikaarlepyy archipelago Finland B3, C7  
Vlieland Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Apophallus muehlingi[5]
Capillaria anatis <Unverified Name>[5]
Cardiocephalus longicollis[5]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[6]
Choanotaenia porosa <Unverified Name>[5]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Cotylurus pileatus[5]
Cotylurus platycephalus <Unverified Name>[5]
Cryptocotyle lingua[5]
Diphyllobothrium dendriticum[5]
Diplostomum chromatophorum[5]
Diplostomum helveticum[5]
Diplostomum huronense[5]
Diplostomum indistinctum <Unverified Name>[5]
Diplostomum rutili[5]
Diplostomum spathaceum[5]
Diplostomum volvens[5]
Echinocotyle druzniensis[5]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[5]
Holostephanus luhei[5]
Hymenolepis charadrii[5]
Hymenolepis cirrosa <Unverified Name>[5]
Hymenolepis ductilis <Unverified Name>[5]
Hymenolepis multiglandularis <Unverified Name>[5]
Ichthyocotylurus pileatus[5]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[5]
Ignavia ardeae <Unverified Name>[5]
Mesorchis denticulatus[5]
Mesorchis pseudoechinatus[5]
Microphallus pygmaeus[5]
Microphallus similis[5]
Ophiosoma wedlii <Unverified Name>[5]
Ornithobilharzia intermedia <Unverified Name>[5]
Pachytrema paniceum[5]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[5]
Philophthalmus lucipetus[5]
Plagiorchis laricola[5]
Stephanoprora pseudoechinatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Stictodora lari[5]
Strigea falconis[5]
Tanaisia fedtschenkoi[5]
Tetrabothrius erostris[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Ouwehand Zoo
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan

Range Map

Link to Map
Caribbean; North America; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Banks R.C., 22-Sep-2011, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 4Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 6International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011