Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Larus > Larus argentatus
 

Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The European Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) is a large gull (up to 26 inches or 66 cm long). One of the best known of all gulls along the shores of western Europe, it was once abundant. It breeds across Northern Europe, Western Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Scandinavia and the Baltic states. Some European Herring Gulls, especially those resident in colder areas, migrate further south in winter, but many are permanent residents, e.g.
View Wikipedia Record: Larus argentatus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
0
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
4
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 1.20476
EDGE Score: 0.79062

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  2.39 lbs (1.09 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  68 grams
Female Weight [2]  2.26 lbs (1.02 kg)
Male Weight [2]  2.53 lbs (1.15 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  12.1 %
Female Maturity [3]  5 years
Male Maturity [3]  4 years
Clutch Size [3]  3
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Diet [1]  Omnivore
Incubation [3]  26 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  49 years
Speed [4]  28.63 MPH (12.8 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Coastal
Wing Span [4]  4.4 feet (1.34 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Caribbean shrublands France, United Kingdom, Dominica, St. Lucia, Netherlands Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands      
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Eritrean coastal desert Eritrea Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gobi Lakes Valley desert steppe Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hawaii tropical dry forests United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Hawaii tropical high shrublands United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Hawaii tropical low shrublands United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Hawaii tropical moist forests United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican dry forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains alpine meadow Mongolia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Leeward Islands moist forests St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua & Barbuda Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Antillean dry forests Grenada, St. Lucia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Luzon rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwestern Hawaii scrub United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands    
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Novosibirsk Islands arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puerto Rican dry forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican moist forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South American Pacific mangroves Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Neotropic Mangroves    
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Windward Islands moist forests Martinique, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Bory Tucholskie 797004 Poland  
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chausey 203679 France  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
PERTUIS CHARENTAIS - ROCHEBONNE 2024431 France  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Plateau ardennais 186972 France  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
SPA Pommersche Bucht 495241 Germany    
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Seevogelschutzgebiet Helgoland 398663 Germany    
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Socotra Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 6626477 Yemen  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Tête de Canyon du Cap Ferret 903514 France      
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Angara river source Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Archipel de Molène France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3, C3, C6
Archipel des Glénan France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6
Île aux Basques et Les Razades Canada A4i
Île aux Pommes Canada A4i
Île Nue de Mingan Canada A4i
Îles Pèlerins Canada A4i
Îles Sainte-Marie Canada A4iii
Baie des Escoumins et Grandes-Bergeronnes Canada A4i
Barrage de Beauharnois Canada A4iii
Bay of Lommabukten Sweden A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Berezovye islands of Vyborg Bay Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i
Bonaventure Island Canada A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Caithness Cliffs United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
Cap Gris-nez France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4  
Cap Tourmente Canada A4i, A4iii
Corbin Island Canada A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Corossol Island Canada A4i
Estuaire de la Canche France A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4, C6  
Firth of Forth Islands United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C
Fowlsheugh United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3, C3, C4
Grand Manan Archipelago Canada A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Hornøy and Reinøy Norway A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3, C4  
Iony island Russia (Asian) A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Isle of Man Sea Cliffs United Kingdom B1i, B2, B3
La Grosse Boule Island Canada A4i
Montmagny Canada A4iii
Morecambe Bay United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Niagara River Corridor Canada A4i, A4iii
North-east Scania coastline and archipelago Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Ol'khon area Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Pelee Island Archipelago Canada A4i
Pittock Reservoir Canada A4i, A4iii
Quidi Vidi Lake Canada A4i
Quoddy Region Canada A4i, A4iii
Sable Island, Nova Scotia Canada A4i    
Saint-Augustin Migratory Bird Sanctuary Canada A4i
Seskar island Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i  
Shigawake-Newport Canada A4i
Skagerrak-Southwest Norwegian trench Denmark A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C3, C4  
Slnava Slovakia A4iii, B1i
Tadoussac Canada A4i, A4iii
Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Wildwood Gull Roost Canada A4i, A4iii
Witless Bay Islands Canada A4i, A4ii, A4iii

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Prey / Diet

Alca torda (Razorbill)[5]
Callionymus lyra (european dragonet)[5]
Cerastoderma edule (Common cockle)[6]
Corophium volutator (mud shrimp)[6]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[6]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[5]
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)[6]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[7]
Littorina littorea (Common periwinkle)[6]
Macoma balthica (Baltic macoma)[6]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[8]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[5]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[5]
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Green sea urchin)[9]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)3
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)3
Calidris alpina (Dunlin)2
Calidris canutus (Red Knot)3
Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Common Black-headed Gull)2
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)2
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)2
Gadus morhua (rock cod)3
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)2
Haematopus ostralegus (Eurasian Oystercatcher)4
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)2
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)3
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)3
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)2
Larus canus (Mew Gull)5
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)2
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)3
Limosa lapponica (Bar-tailed Godwit)3
Limosa limosa (Black-tailed Godwit)2
Mullus surmuletus (Red mullet)2
Numenius arquata (Eurasian Curlew)3
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)2
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)2
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)3
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)2
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)2
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)3
Pollachius virens (Sillock)2
Pomatoschistus microps (Common goby)3
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)2
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)2
Recurvirostra avosetta (Pied Avocet)2
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)2
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)3
Tadorna tadorna (Common Shelduck)4
Uria aalge (Common Murre)3

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus ranae[10]
Apatemon gracilis[10]
Aploparaksis furcigera[10]
Aploparaksis larina[10]
Apophallus muehlingi[10]
Aporchis massiliensis[10]
Aporchis rugosus[10]
Aprocta turgida <Unverified Name>[10]
Arhythmorhynchus longicollis[10]
Austrobilharzia variglandis[10]
Baruscapillaria carbonis <Unverified Name>[10]
Bianium plicitum[10]
Bilharziella polonica[10]
Bisaccanthes bisaccata <Unverified Name>[10]
Brachylaima fuscatus[10]
Brachylecithum microtesticulatum[10]
Capillaria anatis <Unverified Name>[10]
Capillaria carbonis <Unverified Name>[10]
Capillaria contorta <Unverified Name>[10]
Cardiocephalus hillii <Unverified Name>[10]
Cardiocephalus longicollis[10]
Ceratophyllus borealis[11]
Ceratophyllus garei[11]
Ceratophyllus lari[11]
Ceratophyllus niger (Western chicken flea)[11]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus insularis[11]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[11]
Cercarioides aharonii[10]
Choanotaenia porosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Clinostomum complanatum <Unverified Name>[10]
Contracaecum rudolphii <Unverified Name>[10]
Contracaecum spiculigerum[10]
Contracaecum variegatum <Unverified Name>[10]
Corynosoma strumosum[10]
Cosmocephalus firlottei <Unverified Name>[10]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Cotylurus erraticus[10]
Cotylurus pileatus[10]
Cotylurus platycephalus <Unverified Name>[10]
Cryptocotyle concava[10]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[10]
Cryptocotyle lingua[10]
Cyathocotyle orientalis <Unverified Name>[10]
Cyathocotyle prussica <Unverified Name>[10]
Cyathostoma lari <Unverified Name>[10]
Dicranotaenia clavicirrus[10]
Digramma interrupta <Unverified Name>[10]
Diphyllobothrium dendriticum[10]
Diphyllobothrium ditremum[10]
Diphyllobothrium vogeli <Unverified Name>[10]
Diplostomum chromatophorum[10]
Diplostomum commutatum[10]
Diplostomum helveticum[10]
Diplostomum huronense[10]
Diplostomum indistinctum <Unverified Name>[10]
Diplostomum mergi <Unverified Name>[10]
Diplostomum nordmanni[10]
Diplostomum paracaudum <Unverified Name>[10]
Diplostomum paraspathaceum[10]
Diplostomum pseudospathaceum[10]
Diplostomum pusillum <Unverified Name>[10]
Diplostomum rutili[10]
Diplostomum shigini[10]
Diplostomum spathaceum[10]
Diplostomum volvens[10]
Dispharynx aduncus <Unverified Name>[10]
Drepanidotaenia aporalis <Unverified Name>[10]
Echinochasmus microacetabulum <Unverified Name>[10]
Echinochasmus mordax[10]
Echinoparyphium clerci <Unverified Name>[10]
Echinoparyphium recurvatum[10]
Echinostoma revolutum[10]
Erschoviorchis lintoni <Unverified Name>[10]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[10]
Galactosomum lacteum[10]
Gastrotaenia dogieli <Unverified Name>[10]
Gastrotaenia megalops <Unverified Name>[10]
Gigantobilharzia acotylea[10]
Gymnophallus affinis <Unverified Name>[10]
Gymnophallus deliciosus[10]
Gynaecotyla longiintestinata[10]
Gynaecotyla nasicola <Unverified Name>[10]
Hemistomum pileatum <Unverified Name>[10]
Heterophyes heterophyes[10]
Heterophyopsis continua[10]
Himasthla compacta <Unverified Name>[10]
Himasthla elongata[10]
Himasthla larina <Unverified Name>[10]
Himasthla leptosoma[10]
Himasthla militaris[10]
Himasthla secunda[10]
Hymenolepis aleuti[10]
Hymenolepis arguei[10]
Hymenolepis charadrii[10]
Hymenolepis cirrosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Hymenolepis clavicirrosus <Unverified Name>[10]
Hymenolepis ductilis <Unverified Name>[10]
Hymenolepis lateralis <Unverified Name>[10]
Hymenolepis neoarctica[10]
Hymenolepis octacanthoides <Unverified Name>[10]
Hypoderaeum conoideum[10]
Ichthyocotylurus pileatus[10]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[10]
Knipowitschiatrema nicolai[10]
Laricanthus lateralis <Unverified Name>[10]
Lateriporus clerci[10]
Lateriporus gredleri <Unverified Name>[10]
Lateriporus teres[10]
Ligula intestinalis[10]
Liliatrema skrjabini[10]
Lyperosomum anatis <Unverified Name>[10]
Lyperosomum lari <Unverified Name>[10]
Maritrema echinocirrata[10]
Maritrema gratiosum[10]
Maritrema lepidum <Unverified Name>[10]
Maritrema misenensis[10]
Maritrema oocysta[10]
Maritrema rhodanicum <Unverified Name>[10]
Maritrema sachalinicum <Unverified Name>[10]
Megalophallus carcini[10]
Mesorchis denticulatus[10]
Mesorchis pseudoechinatus[10]
Mesorchis reynoldi[10]
Mesostephanus appendiculatus[10]
Metagonimus yokogawai[10]
Metametorchis butoridi <Unverified Name>[10]
Metorchis xanthostomus[10]
Microphallus bittii[10]
Microphallus excellens[10]
Microphallus pachygrapsi <Unverified Name>[10]
Microphallus papillorobustus[10]
Microphallus primas[10]
Microphallus pygmaeus[10]
Microphallus similis[10]
Microsomacanthus ductilis[10]
Orchipedum tracheicola[10]
Ornithobilharzia canaliculata[10]
Ornithobilharzia intermedia <Unverified Name>[10]
Pachytrema calculus[10]
Pachytrema magnum <Unverified Name>[10]
Pachytrema paniceum[10]
Paracoenogonimus ovatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[10]
Paracuaria macdonaldi <Unverified Name>[10]
Paracuaria tridentata <Unverified Name>[10]
Parascocotyle sinoecum <Unverified Name>[10]
Paricterotaenia micracantha <Unverified Name>[10]
Paricterotaenia porosa[10]
Paricterotaenia sternina[10]
Parorchis acanthus[10]
Philophthalmus lucipetus[10]
Philophthalmus skrjabini <Unverified Name>[10]
Plagiorchis arcuatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Plagiorchis brauni <Unverified Name>[10]
Plagiorchis laricola[10]
Plagiorchis maculosus <Unverified Name>[10]
Plagiorchis multiglandularis <Unverified Name>[10]
Podocotyle reflexa[10]
Polycercus porosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Polymorphus acutis[10]
Polymorphus kenti[10]
Polymorphus magnus[10]
Porrocaecum semiteres <Unverified Name>[10]
Prosthogonimus cuneatus[10]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[10]
Retinometra lari <Unverified Name>[10]
Retinometra venusta[10]
Southwellina hispida[10]
Spelotrema pygmaeum[10]
Stephanoprora pseudoechinatum <Unverified Name>[10]
Stictodora lari[10]
Stictodora lariformicola <Unverified Name>[10]
Stictodora morosovi[10]
Stictodora sawakinensis[10]
Streptocara crassicauda <Unverified Name>[10]
Streptocara tridentata <Unverified Name>[10]
Strigea falconis[10]
Tanaisia fedtschenkoi[10]
Tetrabothrius erostris[10]
Tetrabothrius mawsoni[10]
Tetracotyle ardea <Unverified Name>[10]
Typhlocoelum cucumerinum[10]
Wardium cirrosa[10]
Wardium fusa[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardencachinnans
Cameron Park Zoo
Dierenrijk Europa
Kaliningrad Zooargentatus
Kharkiv Zoo
Kyiv Zoological Park
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
 cachinnans
Moscow Zoological Park
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Nogeyama Zoological Gardens Yokohama
Parc Zoologic de Barcelonacachinnans
Parc Zoologique Fort Mardyckargentatus
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Turtle Back Zoo
Wilhelma Zoo
Yokohama Zool. Gardens
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontaine
Zoo Zürich
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc

Range Map

North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

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Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 2011-09-22, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2Pierotti, R. and TP Good. 1994. Herring Gull (Larus argentatus). In A. Poole and F. Gill, [eds.], The birds of North America, No. 124. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 5Diets of adult and chick Herring Gulls Larus argentatus argenteus on Ailsa Craig, south-west Scotland., M. Nogales, B. Zonfrillo and P. Monaghan, SEABIRD 17: 56-63 6Energy flow of a boreal intertidal ecosystem, the Sylt-Rømø Bight, Dan Baird, Harald Asmus, Ragnhild Asmus, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 279: 45–61, 2004 7Feeding Spectrum and Trophic Relationships of Short-finned Squid (Illex illecebrosus) in the Northwest Atlantic, Yu. M. Froerman, NAFO Sci. Coun. Studies, 7: 67-75 (1984) 8The role of capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the foodweb of the Barents Sea, A. V. Dolgov, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 1034–1045. 2002 9Foods and predators of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in Newfoundland waters, J. H. HIMMELMAN and D. H. STEELE, Marine Biology 9, 315-322 (1971) 10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 11International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2