Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Larus > Larus delawarensis
 

Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) is a medium-sized gull.
View Wikipedia Record: Larus delawarensis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
1
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
8
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 1.71181
EDGE Score: 0.997618

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  1.14 lbs (518 g)
Birth Weight [3]  36 grams
Female Weight [2]  1.04 lbs (471 g)
Male Weight [2]  1.25 lbs (566 g)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  20.2 %
Female Maturity [3]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Clutch Size [4]  3
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Diet [1]  Omnivore
Incubation [3]  21 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  32 years
Migration [1]  Intracontinental
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams, Coastal
Wing Span [5]  3.8 feet (1.15 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Caribbean shrublands France, United Kingdom, Dominica, St. Lucia, Netherlands Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands      
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central Polynesian tropical moist forests United States, Kiribati Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hawaii tropical dry forests United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Hawaii tropical low shrublands United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Hawaii tropical moist forests United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican dry forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Leeward Islands moist forests St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua & Barbuda Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Antillean dry forests Grenada, St. Lucia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northwestern Hawaii scrub United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands    
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Puerto Rican dry forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican moist forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tehuacán Valley matorral Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Windward Islands moist forests Martinique, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Curecanti National Recreation Area V 31032 Colorado, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mesa Verde National Park II 40098 Colorado, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Île de la Couvée Canada A4i, A4iii
Île Deslauriers Canada A4i, A4iii
Coastal Saginaw Bay (Nayanquing Point to Wildfowl Bay) USA A4i
Kaweenakumik Lake Canada A4i, A4iii
Leslie Street Spit Canada A4i, A4iii
Limestone Islands Canada A4i, A4iii
Lower Detroit River Canada A4i, A4iii
Miquelon Lake Canada A4i, A4iii
Niagara River Corridor Canada A4i, A4iii
Pittock Reservoir Canada A4i, A4iii
Port Colborne (breakwater and mainland) Canada A4i, A4iii
Presqu'ile Provincial Park Canada A4i, A4iii
Réserve nationale de faune des Îles-de-Contrecoeur Canada A4i, A4iii
Riverton Sandy Bar Canada A4i, A4iii
Salton Sea USA A4i
Wildwood Gull Roost Canada A4i, A4iii

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Anaxyrus fowleri (Fowler's Toad)[6]
Anguilla rostrata (American eel)[7]
Carassius auratus (Goldfish)[8]
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)[7]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[7]
Lampsilis radiata (eastern lampmussel)[7]
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)[7]
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)[7]
Lymnaea stagnalis (swamp lymnaea)[7]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[7]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[7]
Myotis vivesi (fish-eating bat)[9]
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden shiner minnow)[7]
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)[7]
Phanaeus vindex (Dung beetle)[7]
Pimephales notatus (Bluntnose minnow)[8]
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Strawberry bass)[7]
Semotilus atromaculatus (Horned dace)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)2
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)2
Agkistrodon piscivorus (conanti)1
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)1
Ameiurus natalis (Yellow bullhead)2
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)3
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)3
Anguilla rostrata (American eel)5
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)7
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)3
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)2
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)2
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)2
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)8
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)1
Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer)1
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)2
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Cottus carolinae (Banded sculpin)1
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)2
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)2
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)2
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)5
Dolomedes triton (Six-spottedfishingspider)1
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)2
Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)1
Gambusia holbrooki (Bore-drain fish)1
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)2
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)1
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)3
Hypentelium nigricans (Northern hog sucker)3
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish)4
Lanius ludovicianus (Loggerhead Shrike)1
Larus cachinnans (Yellow-legged Gull)1
Larus occidentalis (Western Gull)1
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)2
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)2
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)1
Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)6
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)2
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)1
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)3
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)1
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)2
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)3
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)5
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden shiner minnow)1
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)4
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)3
Pandion haliaetus (Osprey)1
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (American White Pelican)1
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)1
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)6
Plegadis falcinellus (Glossy Ibis)1
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)3
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)1
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)1
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Strawberry bass)2
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)6
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)2
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)2
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)2
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)1
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)1
Semotilus atromaculatus (Horned dace)1
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)2
Strix varia (Barred Owl)3
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)3
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)2
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)4
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)2
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)2
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)2

Predators

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[8]
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)[8]
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)[7]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[8]
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)[7]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[7]

Providers

Parasite of 
Galactosomum humbargari[8]
Himasthla rhigedana[8]
Mesostephanus appendiculatus[8]
Parorchis acanthus[8]
Phocitremoides ovale[8]
Pygidiopsoides spindalis[8]
Stictodora hancocki[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aprocta turgida <Unverified Name>[10]
Austrobilharzia variglandis[10]
Choanotaenia porosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Diplostomum huronense[10]
Diplostomum spathaceum[10]
Hymenolepis dusmeti[10]
Microphallus pygmaeus[10]
Ornithobilharzia canaliculata[10]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[10]
Pectinospirura argentata <Unverified Name>[10]
Skrjabinoclava inornatae <Unverified Name>[10]
Stictodora lariformicola <Unverified Name>[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Abilene Zoological Gardens
Caldwell Zoo
Cameron Park Zoo
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
Scovill Zoo
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr

Range Map

North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2Ryder, JP 1993. Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis). In A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill (Eds.). The Birds of North America, No. 33. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 28 pp 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5DETERMINATION OF BODY DENSITY FOR TWELVE BIRD SPECIES, DAVID M. HAMERSHOCK, THOMAS W. SEAMANS, GLEN E. BERNHARDT, WRIGHT LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH (1993) 6Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177 7Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 9Myotis vivesi, Brad R. Blood and Mary K. Clark, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 588, pp. 1-5 (1998) 10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access