Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Larus > Larus canus
 

Larus canus (Mew Gull)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

For the common gull butterfly, see Cepora nerissa.The common gull (European and Asian subspecies; see below) or mew gull (North American subspecies) Larus canus is a medium-sized gull which breeds in northern Asia, northern Europe and northwestern North America. It migrates further south in winter. Its name does not indicate that it is an abundant species, but that during the winter it feeds on common land, short pasture used for grazing.
View Wikipedia Record: Larus canus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
1
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
9
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 2.02169
EDGE Score: 1.10582

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  431 grams
Birth Weight [1]  40 grams
Female Maturity [1]  3 years
Male Maturity [1]  2 years
Clutch Size [1]  3
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Diet [2]  Omnivore
Incubation [1]  23 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  34 years
Migration [3]  Intracontinental
Speed [4]  29.97 MPH (13.4 m/s)
Wing Span [4]  3.6 feet (1.11 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Red River freshwater swamp forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Alsó-Tisza-völgy 88306 Hungary  
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Bakarlaka 82794 Bulgaria  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Basses Vallées du Cotentin et Baie des Veys 83262 France  
Batova 94228 Bulgaria  
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Borkum-Riffgrund 154559 Germany      
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Camargue 546256 France  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chausey 203679 France  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - ALYKI KITROUS 73260 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI - AXIOUPOLI 83216 Greece  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dolina Srodkowej Wisly 76054 Poland  
Dolna Odra 72985 Poland  
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Gorges de la Loire 145350 France  
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
Laguna di Venezia 136417 Italy  
Lahemaa 183898 Estonia  
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
MARAIS POITEVIN 168088 France  
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Malaya Sozva Zapovednik Ia 557376 Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
Mor Braz 99524 France    
NOTIA MANI 78232 Greece  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
PERTUIS CHARENTAIS - ROCHEBONNE 2024431 France  
PLAINE DU FOREZ 81144 France  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Plateau ardennais 186972 France  
Przybrzezne wody Baltyku 480933 Poland    
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Pärnu lahe 270781 Estonia  
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
SPA Pommersche Bucht 495241 Germany    
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Seevogelschutzgebiet Helgoland 398663 Germany    
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Sylter Außenriff 1313190 Germany      
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Unteres Elbtal 131510 Germany  
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Vättern (östra) 158858 Sweden  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zalew Wislany 79627 Poland  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Al Batinah coast Oman A4i, B1i    
Angara river source Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Aniva bay Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii  
Balagansk forest-steppe Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Barkley Sound Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Batova Bulgaria A1, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3, C1, C3, C5, C6
Baynes Sound Canada A4i
Berezovye islands of Vyborg Bay Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i
Black Sea Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Bluemill United Kingdom B2
Bosphorus Turkey A4i, A4ii, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1ii, B1iii, B1iv  
Bylinskaya Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Carrowmore Lake Ireland B2, C7  
Central Black Sea Coast Turkey A4iv, B1i, B2  
Coast from Aggersund to Bygholm Vejle Denmark B2, C7  
Correen Hills United Kingdom A4i, B1i, B2, C3
Cowichan estuary Canada A4i
Danilovskoye marshes Russia (European) B2
Danube Delta Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Dunes of Schoorl Netherlands B2
Dunilovskoye bog Russia (European) B1i, B2
Durankulak Lake Bulgaria A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Eastern German Bight Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4    
Hjelm Denmark B2, C7  
Inishglora and Inishkeeragh Ireland A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C4, C6  
Inishkeeragh and Illancrone Ireland B2, C2, C6  
Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park Finland B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Kaliakra Bulgaria A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iv, B1i, B1ii, B1iv, B2, C1, C2, C3, C5, C6
Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes Russia (European) A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2
Kargopol' area Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Khayryuzova bay Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii
Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago Finland A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Kretuonas Landscape Reserve Lithuania B2
Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago Finland B1i, B2, C3, C6
Kukkiajärvi lake Finland B2, C6
Kuloy river Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Kunashir island Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4ii  
Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Lake Lacha Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Loch of Skene United Kingdom A4i, B1i, B3, C2, C3, C6
Marshes near villages Frolishchi and Chistoye Russia (European) B2
Merenkurkku archipelago Finland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B1iv, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Nevskoye lake Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Nissum Fjord Denmark A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
North-east Sakhalin lagoons Russia (Asian) A1, A4i
Northern Montague Island USA A4i
Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs Russia (European) A1, B1i, B2
Oulu region wetlands Finland A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Outer Stockholm archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Peat pits in Volodarski and Balakhninski districts Russia (European) A4i, B1i, B2
Pori archipelago and wetlands Finland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Ptich'ya magistral' area Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i
Rahja archipelago Finland B1i, B2, B3, C3  
Rauma and Luvia archipelagos Finland B2, B3, C2
Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Rybinsk reservoir Russia (European) A1, B1i, B2
Schiermonnikoog Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Shabla Lake Complex Bulgaria A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Shallow Bay, Big Slough and Swan Lake Canada A4iii
Sitnikovski Reserve Russia (European) A4i, B1i, B2
Skallingen and Langli Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C4, C6
Slnava Slovakia A4iii, B1i
Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2  
South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2  
Stjørdals Fjord Norway A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Sydfynske Ø-hav Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago Finland A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Texel: Dunes and Hors Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C4, C6  
Tips of Corsemaul and Tom Mor United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4
Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Varegovskoye bog Russia (European) B1i, B2
Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex Bulgaria A1, A4i, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B3, C1, C2, C3, C5, C6
Vlieland Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Zwanenwater Netherlands B1i, B2, C2

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[5]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[5]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[5]
Atherinops affinis (Topsmelt silverside)[6]
Aythya marila (Greater Scaup)[5]
Belone belone (Garfish)[5]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[5]
Cerastoderma edule (Common cockle)[7]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[5]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[5]
Cololabis saira (Skipper)[5]
Corophium volutator (mud shrimp)[7]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[5]
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)[5]
Doryteuthis opalescens (california market squid)[8]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[5]
Engraulis anchoita (Anchoita)[5]
Engraulis australis (Australian anchovy)[5]
Engraulis capensis (Southern African anchovy)[5]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[5]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[5]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[5]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[5]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[5]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[5]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[9]
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)[7]
Hemigrapsus oregonensis (yellow shore crab)[6]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[5]
Lethenteron kessleri (Arctic brook lamprey)[5]
Limecola balthica (Baltic macoma)[7]
Littorina littorea (Common periwinkle)[5]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[5]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[5]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[10]
Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow)[5]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[5]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[5]
Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel)[6]
Neomysis integer[5]
Pachygrapsus crassipes (striped shore crab)[6]
Phanerodon furcatus (White seaperch)[11]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[5]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[5]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[5]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[5]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[5]
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)[9]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[5]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[5]
Scomberesox saurus (Atlantic saury)[5]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)2
Calidris alpina (Dunlin)2
Calidris canutus (Red Knot)2
Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Common Black-headed Gull)2
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)2
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)2
Egretta thula (Snowy Egret)3
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)3
Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)2
Gillichthys mirabilis (Longjaw mudsucker)2
Haematopus ostralegus (Eurasian Oystercatcher)2
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)2
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)5
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)2
Larus occidentalis (Western Gull)4
Limosa fedoa (Marbled Godwit)2
Limosa lapponica (Bar-tailed Godwit)3
Limosa limosa (Black-tailed Godwit)2
Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)2
Neogobius melanostomus (Round goby)2
Numenius americanus (Long-billed Curlew)2
Numenius arquata (Eurasian Curlew)2
Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Spotted sand bass)3
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)2
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)2
Pluvialis squatarola (Grey Plover)2
Pomatoschistus microps (Common goby)2
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)2
Recurvirostra avosetta (Pied Avocet)2
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)2
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)2
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)2
Tadorna tadorna (Common Shelduck)4
Tringa semipalmata (Willet)3
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2

Predators

Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[5]
Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)[5]
Cryptocotyle lingua[5]
Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)[5]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[5]
Himasthla continua[5]
Himasthla elongata[5]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[5]
Maritrema gratiosum[5]
Maritrema oocysta[5]
Maritrema subdolum[5]
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)[5]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[5]

Providers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cryptocotyle lingua[5]
Himasthla elongata[5]
Monorchis parvus[5]
Mytilicola intestinalis[5]
Paramonostomum chabaudi[5]
Podocotyle atomon[5]
Profilicollis botulus[5]
Renicola roscovita[5]
Sacculina carcini[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Alaria alata <Unverified Name>[12]
Alcataenia micracantha[12]
Amphimerus speciosus <Unverified Name>[12]
Antennocara skrjabini <Unverified Name>[12]
Aploparaksis larina[12]
Apophallus muehlingi[12]
Baruscapillaria carbonis <Unverified Name>[12]
Capillaria contorta <Unverified Name>[12]
Capillaria laricola <Unverified Name>[12]
Cardiocephalus longicollis[12]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[13]
Choanotaenia porosa <Unverified Name>[12]
Clinostomum complanatum <Unverified Name>[12]
Contracaecum rudolphii <Unverified Name>[12]
Contracaecum variegatum <Unverified Name>[12]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[12]
Cotylurus pileatus[12]
Cotylurus platycephalus <Unverified Name>[12]
Cotylurus variegatus[12]
Cryptocotyle concava[12]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[12]
Cryptocotyle lingua[12]
Cryptocotyle ransomi <Unverified Name>[12]
Dicranotaenia cirrosa[12]
Diphyllobothrium dendriticum[12]
Diplostomum chromatophorum[12]
Diplostomum commutatum[12]
Diplostomum flexicaudum[12]
Diplostomum helveticum[12]
Diplostomum huronense[12]
Diplostomum indistinctum <Unverified Name>[12]
Diplostomum mergi <Unverified Name>[12]
Diplostomum nordmanni[12]
Diplostomum rutili[12]
Diplostomum spathaceum[12]
Diplostomum volvens[12]
Dispharynx aduncus <Unverified Name>[12]
Echinoparyphium recurvatum[12]
Erschoviorchis lintoni <Unverified Name>[12]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[12]
Eufilaria lari <Unverified Name>[12]
Filaria obvelata <Unverified Name>[12]
Fimbriaria fasciolaris[12]
Gigantobilharzia vittensis <Unverified Name>[12]
Gymnophallus choledochus[5]
Gymnophallus deliciosus[12]
Gymnophallus somateriae[5]
Haplorchis pumilio <Unverified Name>[12]
Haplorchis yokogawai[12]
Himasthla continua[5]
Himasthla elongata[12]
Himasthla rhigedana[5]
Hymenolepis baschkiriensis[12]
Hymenolepis cirrosa <Unverified Name>[12]
Hymenolepis clavicirrosus <Unverified Name>[12]
Hymenolepis ductilis <Unverified Name>[12]
Hymenolepis pacificum[12]
Hymenolepis stellorae <Unverified Name>[12]
Ichthyocotylurus pileatus[12]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[12]
Lacunovermis macomae[5]
Laricanthus lateralis <Unverified Name>[12]
Lateriporus clerci[12]
Levinseniella brachysoma[12]
Ligula intestinalis[12]
Maritrema subdolum[12]
Mesorchis denticulatus[12]
Mesorchis pseudoechinatus[12]
Mesorchis reynoldi[12]
Mesostephanus appendiculatus[5]
Metagonimus yokogawai[12]
Microphallus excellens[12]
Microphallus pygmaeus[5]
Microsomacanthus ductilis[12]
Notocotylus attenuatus[12]
Ophiosoma patagiatum <Unverified Name>[12]
Ophiosoma wedlii <Unverified Name>[12]
Ophryocotyle proteus[12]
Ornithobilharzia intermedia <Unverified Name>[12]
Pachytrema calculus[12]
Pachytrema paniceum[12]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[12]
Paracuaria tridentata <Unverified Name>[12]
Paricterotaenia porosa[12]
Parorchis acanthus[5]
Parvatrema minutum[5]
Phocitremoides ovale[5]
Plagiorchis laricola[12]
Plagiorchis maculosus <Unverified Name>[12]
Plagiorchis marii <Unverified Name>[12]
Plagiorchis multiglandularis <Unverified Name>[12]
Plagiorchis nanus[12]
Plagiorchis ovoidalis <Unverified Name>[12]
Plagiorchis skrjabini <Unverified Name>[12]
Porrocaecum semiteres <Unverified Name>[12]
Prosthogonimus lineatus <Unverified Name>[12]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[12]
Psilostomum brevicolle[5]
Pygidiopsoides spindalis[5]
Renicola roscovita[5]
Schistocephalus solidus[12]
Schistorophus acanthocephalicus <Unverified Name>[12]
Spelotrema papillorobusta <Unverified Name>[12]
Stephanoprora pseudoechinatum <Unverified Name>[12]
Stictodora adulescentina <Unverified Name>[12]
Stictodora hancocki[5]
Stictodora perpendiculum <Unverified Name>[12]
Stictodora pusilla <Unverified Name>[12]
Strigea infundibuliformis <Unverified Name>[12]
Tanaisia fedtschenkoi[12]
Tetrabothrius erostris[12]
Tetrabothrius mawsoni[12]
Tetrameres skrjabini <Unverified Name>[12]
Trichocephaloides megalocephala <Unverified Name>[12]
Wardium cirrosa[12]
Wardium fryei[12]
Wardium fusa[12]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Moscow Zoological Park
Tiergarten Heidelberg
Zoo de Pont-Scorff

Range Map

North America; Vallée de la Haine en aval de Mons (Bernissart; Boussu; Hensies; Jurbise; Mons; Quaregnon; Saint-Ghi;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 4Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Lafferty, K. D., R. F. Hechinger, J. C. Shaw, K. L. Whitney and A. M. Kuris (in press) Food webs and parasites in a salt marsh ecosystem. In Disease ecology: community structure and pathogen dynamics (eds S. Collinge and C. Ray). Oxford University Press, Oxford. 7Energy flow of a boreal intertidal ecosystem, the Sylt-Rømø Bight, Dan Baird, Harald Asmus, Ragnhild Asmus, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 279: 45–61, 2004 8CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 9Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake, Per-Arne Amundsen, Kevin D. Lafferty, Rune Knudsen, Raul Primicerio, Anders Klemetsen and Armand M. Kuris, Journal of Animal Ecology 2009, 78, 563–572 10The role of capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the foodweb of the Barents Sea, A. V. Dolgov, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 1034–1045. 2002 11Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository. 12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 13International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access