Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Ichthyaetus > Ichthyaetus melanocephalus
 

Ichthyaetus melanocephalus (Mediterranean Gull)

Synonyms: Larus melanocephalus

Wikipedia Abstract

The Mediterranean gull (Ichthyaetus melanocephalus) is a small gull which breeds almost entirely in the Western Palearctic, mainly in the south east, especially around the Black Sea, and in central Turkey. There are colonies elsewhere in southern Europe, and this species has undergone a dramatic range expansion in recent decades. Birders often abbreviate its name to "Med gull". As is the case with many gulls, it has traditionally been placed in the genus Larus.
View Wikipedia Record: Ichthyaetus melanocephalus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
1
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
9
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 2.03854
EDGE Score: 1.11138

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  256 grams
Female Maturity [1]  3 years
Male Maturity [1]  3 years
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Endothermic [2]  20 %
Diet - Fish [2]  30 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  40 %
Diet - Scavenger [2]  10 %
Forages - Ground [2]  50 %
Forages - Water Surface [2]  50 %
Clutch Size [4]  2
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Incubation [3]  24 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  15 years
Migration [5]  Intercontinental
Wing Span [3]  38 inches (.96 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, DELTA LOUROU KAI ARACHTHOU (PETRA, MYTIKAS, EVRYTERI PERIOCHI) 71136 Greece  
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, LIMNOTHALASSA KATAFOURKO KAI KORAKONISIA 56861 Greece  
Alsó-Tisza-völgy 88306 Hungary  
BASSEE ET PLAINES ADJACENTES 68307 France  
BRENNE 144090 France  
Baie de Morlaix 67680 France    
Baie du Mont Saint Michel 117800 France  
Bakarlaka 82794 Bulgaria  
Balaton 145518 Hungary  
Barthes de l'Adour 38674 France  
Basses Vallées du Cotentin et Baie des Veys 83262 France  
Batova 94228 Bulgaria  
CABO DE GATA-NIJAR 122347 Spain  
COTE LANGUEDOCIENNE 177605 France  
Camargue 546256 France  
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Costa Sudoeste 183883 Portugal  
Costes del Garraf 65418 Spain  
Crau 97194 France  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU KAI EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PET 109185 Greece  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - ALYKI KITROUS 73260 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI - AXIOUPOLI 83216 Greece  
DELTA NESTOU KAI LIMNOTHALASSES KERAMOTIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 55561 Greece  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Delta de l'Ebre 119562 Spain  
Dolina Dolnej Wisly 82926 Poland  
Dolina Górnej Wisly 61134 Poland  
Dolina Nidy 49313 Poland  
Dolina Srodkowej Wisly 76054 Poland  
Dunajské luhy 45462 Slovakia  
ETHNIKOS DRYMOS PRESPON 65762 Greece  
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Estuaire et marais de la Basse Seine 46555 France  
Estuaires picards : Baie de Somme et d'Authie 37595 France    
Estuário do Sado 60868 Portugal  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Grande Brière, marais de Donges et du Brivet 48813 France  
Isola di Capraia - area terrestre e marina 45475 Italy    
Isola di Montecristo e Formica di Montecristo - area terrestre e marina 38259 Italy  
Isola di Pantelleria e area marina circostante 38776 Italy    
KOILADA KAI EKVOLES SPERCHEIOU - MALIAKOS KOLPOS 117491 Greece  
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
LESVOS: KOLPOS KALLONIS KAI CHERSAIA PARAKTIA ZONI 45248 Greece  
LIMNES KAI LIMNOTHALASSES TIS THRAKIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 72787 Greece  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNES VISTONIS, ISMARIS - LIMNOTHALASSES PORTO LAGOS, ALYKI PTELEA, XIROLIMNI, KARATZA 45016 Greece  
LIMNES VOLVI KAI LAGKADA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 66589 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LIMNOS: LIMNES CHORTAROLIMNI KAI ALYKI, KOLPOS MOUDROU, ELOS DIAPORI KAI CHERSONISOS FAKOS 40260 Greece    
LITTORAL AUGERON 52930 France    
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
La Durance 49441 France  
Lacs de la forêt d'Orient 58255 France  
Laguna di Marano e Grado 40434 Italy  
Laguna di Venezia 136417 Italy  
MARAIS POITEVIN 168088 France  
MASSIF DE RAMBOUILLET ET ZONES HUMIDES PROCHES 42280 France  
Marais Breton, baie de Bourgneuf, île de Noirmoutier et forêt de Monts 137949 France  
Marais du Nord Médoc 59273 France  
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Mittlere Elbe einschließlich Steckby-Lödderitzer Forst 47123 Germany  
Monte Cofano, Capo San Vito e Monte Sparagio 37693 Italy    
Monti Peloritani, Dorsale Curcuraci, Antennamare e area marina dello stretto di Messina 69172 Italy    
Mor Braz 99524 France    
NOTIA MANI 78232 Greece  
NOTIO DASIKO SYMPLEGMA EVROU 72341 Greece  
OROS OCHI, PARAKTIA ZONI KAI NISIDES 82497 Greece  
Ostoja Kozienicka 168776 Poland  
Ostoja Nidzianska 68254 Poland  
PERTUIS CHARENTAIS - ROCHEBONNE 2024431 France  
Parco Nazionale del Circeo 54771 Italy  
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Ria Formosa 58164 Portugal  
SAMOTHRAKI: OROS FENGARI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 51946 Greece  
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Ses Salines d'Eivissa i Formentera 40611 Spain  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Suha Reka 63678 Bulgaria  
THASOS (OROS YPSARIO KAI PARAKTIA ZONI) KAI NISIDES KOINYRA, XIRONISI 43471 Greece  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Torre Manfria, Biviere e Piana di Gela 44096 Italy  
Trzebiatowsko-Kolobrzeski Pas Nadmorski 43166 Poland    
Ujscie Warty 82280 Poland  
Unterelbe 41304 Germany  
Val d'Allier Bourbonnais 44709 France  
Valle del Mezzano, Valle Pega 46611 Italy  
Valli di Comacchio 41464 Italy  
Vallée de la Loire de Nantes aux Ponts-de-Cé et ses annexes 38830 France  
Wolin i Uznam 76089 Poland    
Zalew Wislany 79627 Poland  
Zalew Wislany i Mierzeja Wislana 100974 Poland  
Zatoka Pucka 154269 Poland    
Zatoka Pucka i Pólwysep Helski 66334 Poland    
l'Albufera 72366 Spain  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou) Greece A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C3
Axios, Loudias, and Aliakmon estuaries Greece A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Balta Albă: Amara: Jirlău Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Basse vallée du Var France A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Büyükçekmece lake Turkey A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Black Sea Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Bosphorus Turkey A4i, A4ii, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1ii, B1iii, B1iv  
Camargue France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Cervia saltpans Italy A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Dadynskiye lakes Russia (European) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Danube Delta Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Ebro delta Spain A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Evros delta Greece A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6
Gallikos estuary and Kalohori lagoon Greece A1, A4i, B1i, B3, C1, C2, C6
Gera gulf-Dipi and Haramida marshes, Lesvos Greece A4i, B1i, B2, C2
Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh Ukraine A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3  
Khanskoye Lake Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Kiziltash limans Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3  
Kuifeend and Blokkersdijk Belgium A4i, B1i, B3, C2, C3, C6
Lake Beibugeac (Plopu) Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lake Bugeac Romania C1, C2, C4, C6
Lake Dunăreni Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lake Mitrikou (Ismarida) Greece A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lake Oltina Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lake Techirghiol Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lake Veersemeer Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Lake Volkerak Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Limanu: Herghelia Romania C1, C2, C6
Llobregat delta Spain A1, A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C1, C2, C3, C6
Malopolska Wisla river gap Poland C2, C6
Marchesato and River Neto Italy B1iii, B2, C2, C3, C6
Markiezaat Netherlands B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Middle Vistula River Valley Poland C1, C2, C6
Nestou delta and coastal lagoons Greece A1, A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Obytichna peninsula Ukraine A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Ostrovu Lung: Gostinu Romania C1, C2, C6
Petite Camargue laguno-marine France A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Poole Harbour United Kingdom A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Porto Lagos, Lake Vistonis, and coastal lagoons (Lakes of Thrace) Greece A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde Belgium A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Sečovlje saltpans Slovenia A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii
Storage lakes on the lower Inn Austria A4iii, C4, C6
Syvash Bay Ukraine A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3
Tarquinia saltpans Italy C2
The Swale United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6
Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire France C6
Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais France B1i, C3, C6
Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon Italy B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano Italy A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Venice lagoon Italy A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Westerschelde and Saeftinghe Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays Ukraine A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Yeiski salt-lakes Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Zoommeer Netherlands B1i, B3, C2, C3, C6
Zwin Belgium B1i, B3, C3, C6  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Apophallus muehlingi[6]
Brachylaima fuscatus[6]
Cardiocephalus longicollis[6]
Ceratophyllus garei[7]
Choanotaenia porosa <Unverified Name>[6]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Cryptocotyle concava[6]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[6]
Cryptocotyle lingua[6]
Diplostomum commutatum[6]
Diplostomum huronense[6]
Diplostomum indistinctum <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplostomum pseudospathaceum[6]
Diplostomum shigini[6]
Diplostomum spathaceum[6]
Diplostomum volvens[6]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[6]
Echinostoma paraulum[6]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[6]
Gynaecotyla longiintestinata[6]
Himasthla militaris[6]
Himasthla secunda[6]
Ichthyocotylurus pileatus[6]
Ichthyocotylurus variegatus[6]
Lateriporus clerci[6]
Maritrema echinocirrata[6]
Maritrema oocysta[6]
Maritrema opisthometra[6]
Maritrema subdolum[6]
Mesorchis denticulatus[6]
Mesorchis pseudoechinatus[6]
Mesorchis reynoldi[6]
Microphallus papillorobustus[6]
Ornithobilharzia canaliculata[6]
Ornithobilharzia kowalewskii[6]
Pachytrema calculus[6]
Pachytrema magnum <Unverified Name>[6]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[6]
Plagiorchis elegans[6]
Plagiorchis laricola[6]
Plagiorchis mutationis[6]
Plagiorchis nanus[6]
Prosthogonimus cuneatus[6]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[6]
Stictodora lari[6]
Stictodora morosovi[6]
Stictodora sawakinensis[6]

Range Map

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3British Trust for Ornithology
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
7International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access