Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Rissa > Rissa tridactyla
 

Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)

Synonyms: Larus tridactyla; Larus tridactyla pollicaris; Larus tridactyla tridactyla; Larus tridactylus; Rissa tridactyla pollicaris; Rissa tridactyla tridactyla
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) is a seabird species in the gull family Laridae. This species was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758 as Larus tridactylus. In North America, this species is known as the Black-legged Kittiwake to differentiate it from the Red-legged Kittiwake, but in Europe, where it is the only member of the genus, it is often known just as Kittiwake.
View Wikipedia Record: Rissa tridactyla

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  407 grams
Birth Weight [3]  36 grams
Female Maturity [3]  4 years
Male Maturity [3]  4 years
Clutch Size [3]  2
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Incubation [3]  27 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  29 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Speed [4]  29.30 MPH (13.1 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [4]  38 inches (.96 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Novosibirsk Islands arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Wrangel Island arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
BAHIA DE CADIZ 26000 Spain  
Baie de Vilaine 16929 France  
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Borkum-Riffgrund 154559 Germany      
CAP BEAR- CAP CERBERE 95012 France  
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Camargue 546256 France  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Doggerbank 419820 Germany      
Dungeness 7966 England, United Kingdom
Estuaire de la Bidassoa et baie de Fontarabie 23423 France  
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Firth of Lorn 51830 Scotland, United Kingdom
Flamborough Head 15597 England, United Kingdom  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Hoy 23474 Scotland, United Kingdom
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Ilhas Berlengas 23624 Portugal      
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Iveragh Peninsula SPA 8620 Ireland  
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Kiskunsag Biosphere Reserve II 54598 Hungary  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
LITTORAL AUGERON 52930 France    
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
Lac du Der 16151 France  
Lacs de la forêt d'Orient 58255 France  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Lilla Middelgrund 44084 Sweden    
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
MARISMAS DEL ODIEL 16387 Spain  
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Mor Braz 99524 France    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
PERTUIS CHARENTAIS - ROCHEBONNE 2024431 France  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve 32232 France  
Ropotamo Complex 9557 Bulgaria  
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Sylter Außenriff 1313190 Germany      
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Tête de Canyon du Cap Ferret 903514 France      
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Urdaibaiko Itsasadarra / Ría de Urdaibai 8011 Spain  
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
West Coast National Park II 59916 Western Cape, South Africa
West Donegal Coast SPA 8347 Ireland    
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Aniva bay Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii  
Bezymyannaya and Gribovaya Bays and adjoining waters Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3
Bjørnøya (Bear Island) Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2  
Bogoslova island Russia (Asian) A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Breidafjördur Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3
Caithness Cliffs United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
Cape Newenham USA A4i    
Dobrzhanskogo and Temchun islands Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii
Falaise aux Goélands and pointe de l’Est Canada A4i, A4iii  
Flamborough Head and Bempton Cliffs United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C4  
Fowlsheugh United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3, C3, C4
Grímsey Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3  
Hælavíkurbjarg Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3  
Hjelmsøy Norway A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3    
Hopen island Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2  
Hornøy and Reinøy Norway A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3, C4  
Iony island Russia (Asian) A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Jan Mayen island Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2  
Karaginskiy island Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii  
Krasnyy cape Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii
Krísuvíkurberg Iceland A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3
Kunashir island Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4ii  
Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Látrabjarg Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3    
Lille Middelgrund Denmark A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, C3  
Little Diomede Island and Fairway Rock USA A4i, A4ii    
Little Middelgrund Sweden A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, C3
Makkaurhalvøya (Syltefjordstauran) Norway A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2  
Nevskoye lake Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
North-east Sakhalin lagoons Russia (Asian) A1, A4i
Omgangsstauran Norway A4i, A4iii, B1i
Oria cape Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii
Preobrazheniya island Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii
Ritur Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii  
Rovnyy Island Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii  
Runde Norway A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3  
Skoruvík-Skálabjarg Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3  
South Spitsbergen National Park Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3
Stolbovoy island Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Sværholtklubben Norway A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Troup, Pennan and Lion Heads United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3, C3, C4  
Tuxedni Bay USA A4i
Tyuleniy island Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Vasiliya islands Russia (Asian) A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Verkhoturova island Russia (Asian) A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Vestmannaeyjar Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2
Walrus Islands USA A4i, A4ii
West Westray United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C3, C4, C6  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[5]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[6]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[6]
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)[5]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[5]
Eualus gaimardii (circumpolar eualid)[5]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[6]
Pandalus goniurus (humpy shrimp)[5]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[5]
Pungitius pungitius (Ninespine stickleback)[5]
Saduria entomon[5]
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Green sea urchin)[7]
Themisto libellula[5]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[5]
Thysanoessa inermis[5]
Thysanoessa longipes[5]
Thysanoessa raschii (Arctic krill)[5]
Thysanoessa spinifera[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aechmophorus occidentalis (Western Grebe)2
Alca torda (Razorbill)2
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)3
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)7
Balaenoptera musculus (Blue Whale)3
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)5
Bathyraja interrupta (Sandpaper skate)2
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)2
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)4
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)3
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)3
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)2
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)2
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)2
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)2
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)5
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)3
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)3
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)4
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)2
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)4
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)4
Gadus ogac (White sea nonmigratory cod)2
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)2
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)2
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)4
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)3
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)2
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)2
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)2
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)2
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)5
Merluccius productus (Whiting)2
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)3
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)2
Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)3
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)2
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)2
Podiceps auritus (Horned Grebe)2
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)2
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)3
Pusa hispida (Ringed Seal)2
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)3
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)2
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)2
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)3
Tautogolabrus adspersus (Sea perch)2
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)6
Uria aalge (Common Murre)4
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)3

Predators

Haliaeetus pelagicus (Steller's Sea-Eagle)[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Alcataenia armillaris[9]
Alcataenia larina[9]
Alcataenia micracantha[9]
Aploparaksis rissae[9]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus insularis[10]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[10]
Choanotaenia porosa <Unverified Name>[9]
Contracaecum spiculigerum[9]
Contracaecum variegatum <Unverified Name>[9]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cryptocotyle concava[9]
Cryptocotyle lingua[9]
Diphyllobothrium ditremum[9]
Diplostomum spathaceum[9]
Erschoviorchis lintoni <Unverified Name>[9]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[9]
Hymenolepis fusus <Unverified Name>[9]
Mesorchis denticulatus[9]
Mesorchis pseudoechinatus[9]
Microsomacanthus ductilis[9]
Microsomacanthus paraparvula <Unverified Name>[9]
Mioctenopsylla arctica arctica[10]
Mioctenopsylla arctica hadweni[10]
Mioctenopsylla traubi kurilensis[10]
Nadejdolepis nutidulans <Unverified Name>[9]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[9]
Prosthorhynchus linearis <Unverified Name>[9]
Seuratia shipleyi <Unverified Name>[9]
Stegophorus stellaepolaris <Unverified Name>[9]
Strigea falconis[9]
Tetrabothrius erostris[9]
Tetrabothrius immerinus[9]
Tetrabothrius mawsoni[9]
Tetrabothrius morschtini <Unverified Name>[9]
Wardium fryei[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Biodome de Montreal
Moscow Zoological Park
Rotterdam Zoopollicaris
San Diego Zoopollicaris

Range Map

Link to Map
North America; Oceania;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Banks R.C., 22-Sep-2011, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2Belopol'skii L.O. 1957. Ecology of sea colony birds of the Barents Sea. Izdat. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad. 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 5Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 6An estimate of summer food consumption of six seabird species in Iceland, K. Lilliendahl and J. Solmundsson, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54: 624–630. 1997 7Foods and predators of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in Newfoundland waters, J. H. HIMMELMAN and D. H. STEELE, Marine Biology 9, 315-322 (1971) 8Diet of the Steller’s Sea Eagle in the Northern Sea of Okhotsk, Irina UTEKHINA, Eugene POTAPOV & Michael J. MCGRADY, First Symposium on Steller’s and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia pp. 71-82, 2000 9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 10International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011