Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Sterna > Sterna hirundo
 

Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. This bird has a circumpolar distribution, its four subspecies breeding in temperate and subarctic regions of Europe, Asia and North America. It is strongly migratory, wintering in coastal tropical and subtropical regions. Breeding adults have light grey upperparts, white to very light grey underparts, a black cap, orange-red legs, and a narrow pointed bill.
View Wikipedia Record: Sterna hirundo

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
18
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.08985
EDGE Score: 1.62725

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  120 grams
Birth Weight [2]  1 grams
Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Male Maturity [2]  3 years
Clutch Size [3]  2
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Incubation [2]  24 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  33 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Speed [4]  27.29 MPH (12.2 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Coastal
Wing Span [4]  35 inches (.88 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Aldabra Island xeric scrub Seychelles Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Araya and Paria xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arnhem Land tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Atlantic Coast restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azores temperate mixed forests Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Bahia coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Bahia interior forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Banda Sea Islands moist deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Biak-Numfoor rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Brigalow tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Buru rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Caatinga Brazil Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cape Verde Islands dry forests Cape Verde Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests    
Cape York Peninsula tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Caribbean shrublands France, United Kingdom, Dominica, St. Lucia, Netherlands Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands      
Carnarvon xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Carpentaria tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cayos Miskitos-San Andrés and Providencia moist forests Colombia, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cerrado Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Comoros forests Comoros Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
East African mangroves Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia Afrotropic Mangroves
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Australian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Ecuadorian dry forests Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Esperance mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eyre and York mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Galápagos Islands scrubland mosaic Ecuador Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Granitic Seychelles forests Seychelles Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Guayaquil flooded grasslands Ecuador Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Guianan Freshwater swamp forests Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan moist forests Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Gurupa varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Halmahera rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Helanshan montane conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hindu Kush alpine meadow Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Humid Pampas Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Huon Peninsula montane rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican dry forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jarrah-Karri forest and shrublands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains alpine meadow Mongolia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kimberly tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Leeward Islands moist forests St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua & Barbuda Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Antillean dry forests Grenada, St. Lucia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Sundas deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Luzon rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar dry deciduous forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar lowland forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar mangroves Madagascar Afrotropic Mangroves
Madagascar spiny thickets Madagascar Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Madagascar subhumid forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar succulent woodlands Madagascar Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Madeira evergreen forests Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Marajó varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mascarene forests France, Mauritius Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Monte Alegre varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mount Lofty woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Namib desert Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests Japan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Naracoorte woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
New Caledonia dry forests France Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
New Caledonia rain forests France Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
New Guinea mangroves Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Mangroves
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Brazil restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern New Guinea lowland rain and freshwater swamp forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco wetlands Venezuela Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palawan rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pernambuco coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pilbara shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puerto Rican dry forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican moist forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Qaidam Basin semi-desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queensland tropical rain forests Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Sechura desert Peru Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Seram rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Serra do Mar coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Socotra Island xeric shrublands Yemen Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Solomon Islands rain forests Solomon Islands Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South American Pacific mangroves Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Neotropic Mangroves    
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Australia temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Papuan rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Atlantic mangroves Brazil Neotropic Mangroves  
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern New Guinea freshwater swamp forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern New Guinea lowland rain forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Australia savanna Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Australia woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sulawesi lowland rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sulu Archipelago rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumba deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Swan Coastal Plain Scrub and Woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Tirari-Sturt stony desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tocantins/Pindare moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Trans Fly savanna and grasslands Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Trinidad and Tobago moist forests Trinidad and Tobago Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tumbes-Piura dry forests Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Uruguayan savanna Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Vanuatu rain forests Vanuatu Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Vogelkop montane rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Vogelkop-Aru lowland rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Western Ecuador moist forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Windward Islands moist forests Martinique, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yapen rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Archipiélago Los Roques National Park 409203 Venezuela    
Banc d'Arguin National Park II 2949017 Mauritania
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Bañados del Este Wetland Reserve 986054 Uruguay  
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Beskid Niski 375518 Poland  
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Bory Tucholskie 797004 Poland  
Camargue 546256 France  
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Dolina Biebrzy 299507 Poland  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Hortobágy 298489 Hungary  
IJsselmeer 279946 Netherlands    
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
LEMMENJOEN KANSALLISPUISTO 706697 Finland  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
La Amistad International Park National Park II 541617 Panama, Costa Rica  
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Malaya Sozva Zapovednik Ia 557376 Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Ostoja Augustowska 264573 Poland  
Ostoja Biebrzanska 366973 Poland  
Ostoja Drawska 380310 Poland  
Ostoja Knyszynska 336272 Poland  
Ostoja Warminska 350930 Poland  
PERTUIS CHARENTAIS - ROCHEBONNE 2024431 France  
Palawan Biosphere Reserve 2843689 Philippines  
Parque Atlantico Mar Chiquita Nature Reserve VI 706059 Cordoba, Argentina  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Puszcza Augustowska 332055 Poland  
Puszcza Knyszynska 344935 Poland  
Puszcza Napiwodzko-Ramucka 288136 Poland  
Puszcza Piska 427004 Poland  
Puszcza Sandomierska 319052 Poland  
Pärnu lahe 270781 Estonia  
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Yasuni Biosphere Reserve 4156313 Ecuador  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Seevogelschutzgebiet Helgoland 398663 Germany    
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Sylter Außenriff 1313190 Germany      
Tarutao National Park Marine National Park II 312077 Thailand  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waddenzee 672193 Netherlands    
Wasur-Rawa Biru National Park 605464 Papua, Indonesia  
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Albufera de Valencia marshes Spain A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C6
Alde: Ore Estuary United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Atanasovsko Lake Bulgaria A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1iii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Îlets les Petits Saints et Gros Islets St Barthelemy (to France) A4i, B4ii    
Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Baie de Gaspé Canada A4i, A4iii  
Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin France A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Balgzand Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Balta Albă: Amara: Jirlău Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Balta Mică a Brăilei Romania C1, C2, C4, C6
Banc d'Arguin National Park Mauritania A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Barr al Hikman Oman A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Barycz river valley Poland C1, C3, C4, C6
Bassée et plaines adjacentes France C6
Basse Vallée de la Durance France B1i, C3, C6
Basse vallée du Var France A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Bay of Kilsviken Sweden B2, C2, C6
Bazaruto Archipelago Mozambique A4i, A4iii
Beglitskaya sand-spit Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i
Biebrza river valley Poland C1, C2, C6
Bilosarajs'ka peninsula Ukraine A4i, B1i, B2
Black Sea Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity) Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Blahniţa Romania C1, C2, C3, C6
Broadland United Kingdom B1i, B2, C3, C6  
Buhuşu reservoir: Bacău: Tătărăşti Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Camargue France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Cap Gris-nez France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4  
Carlingford Lough United Kingdom B1i, B2, C3, C6
Cayería Centro-Oriental de Villa Clara Cuba A1, A4i, B4i  
Cayes à Meck Canada A4i, A4iii
Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary Spain A1, A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C1, C2, C3  
Comana Romania C1, C2, C4, C6
Connemara Islands Ireland B1i, B2, C2, C6
Contendas Portugal A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6  
Coquet Island United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde France A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6
Cork Harbour Ireland A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Costa das Flores Portugal A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C4, C6  
Costa do Corvo Portugal A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C4, C6  
Cove Pond Anguilla (to UK) A2, B4i  
Danube Delta Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex Romania A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1iii, B2, B3
Dehtár pond Czech Republic B1i, C3, C6
Delta du Saloum Senegal A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Delta of the River Don Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1iv, B2
Densu Delta Ramsar Site Ghana A4i, A4iii
Dog Lake Canada A4i
Dory's Reef Canada A4i
Druzno lake Poland C3, C6  
Dublin Bay Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Dungeness To Pett Levels United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Dvuob'ye Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
East Caicos and adjacent areas Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) A1, A2, A4i, B4i  
Ebro delta Spain A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
El Roque coastal cliffs Spain B2, C6  
Elanchyk river valley Ukraine B1i, B2
Emine Bulgaria A1, A4iv, B1iv, B2, B3, C1, C5, C6
Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine France A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan France B1i, B2, C2, C6
Etangs Montpellierains France A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Farne Islands United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Färnebofjärden Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C6
Firth of Forth United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Firth of Forth Islands United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C
Garafía rocky islets Spain B2, C2, C6  
Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Gräsö archipelago Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C6  
Great Gull Island USA A4i
Great Inagua Bahamas A1, A4i, A4iii, B4i  
Griend Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Gull and Sandhill Island Canada A4i, A4iii
Haringvliet Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Hirsholmene Denmark A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C6  
Holmöarna archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C6
Ilôts de Trévorc'h France C6  
Iles Chausey France A4i, B1i, B3, C2, C6
Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches France B2, C6
Ilhéu da Praia Portugal A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C6    
Ilhéu da Vila Portugal A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C6  
Ilhéu do Topo e Costa Adjacente Portugal A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C6    
Isles of Scilly United Kingdom A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6    
Jan Thiel Lagoon,Curaçao Netherlands Antilles A4i, B4i  
Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Kahtla-Kübassaare Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6
Kalimok Complex Bulgaria A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Kamsko-Ikski area Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays Ukraine A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Kaweenakumik Lake Canada A4i, A4iii
Kazachka Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i
Khanskoye Lake Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Kiziltash limans Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3  
Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Kouchibouguac NP Sand Islands Canada A4i
Kryva peninsula Ukraine A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Kurtan Lake Russia (Central Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Kuyal'nyts'kyj lyman Ukraine A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Lady's Island Lake Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C4, C6
Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest Canada A4i, A4iii  
Lake Alakol Islands Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i
Lake Gălăţui Romania C1, C2, C4, C6
Lake Oltina Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lake St. Martin Islands Canada A4i
Lake Tämnaren Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
Larne Lough United Kingdom B1i, B2, C3, C6
Leslie Street Spit Canada A4i, A4iii
Lesser Aral Sea Kazakhstan A1, A4i, A4iii
Limestone Islands Canada A4i, A4iii
Little George Island Canada A4i
Littoral Augeron France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4  
Long Point Peninsula and Marshes Canada A4i, A4iii
Long Pond Anguilla (to UK) A2, B4i  
Lough Neagh and Lough Beg United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lover Ob' Russia (Central Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Lower Bug river valley Poland C1, C2, C6
Lower Narew River Valley Poland C1, C6
Lower Vistula River Valley Poland C1, C3, C6
Maddalena archipelago and Cape Ferro Italy A1, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Malopolska Wisla river gap Poland C2, C6
Malpais-St Michiel, Curaçao Netherlands Antilles A1, A2, A3, A4i  
Man'yass lake Russia (Central Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Mandra-Poda complex Bulgaria A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Mangue Seco Brazil A4i
Manila Bay Philippines A1, A4i, A4iii
Marais salants de Noirmoutier France B1i, B3, C2, C6
Mid-Essex Coast United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Middle Vistula River Valley Poland C1, C2, C6
Mietkow reservoir Poland C3, C4, C6
Moray Basin, Firths and Bays United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Muni-Pomadze Ramsar Site Ghana A3, A4i
Na Muang Krabi Thailand A1, A3, A4i
Namib-Naukluft Park Namibia A1, A2, A3, A4i
Nevskoye lake Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Niagara River Corridor Canada A4i, A4iii
North Norfolk Coast United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
North-central Selangor coast Malaysia A1, A4i
Nove Mlyny middle reservoir Czech Republic A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C3, C4, C6
Ogurjaly island Turkmenistan A4i  
Orange river mouth wetlands South Africa A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Oranjestad Reef Islands Aruba (to Netherlands) A4i    
Parque Nacional Archipiélago Los Roques Venezuela A4i    
Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe Brazil A1, A4i, A4iii
Pärnu bay (NEW) Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6
Pelkermeer Saltworks, Bonaire Netherlands Antilles A4i, B4i    
Petite Camargue laguno-marine France A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Pomorie Lake Bulgaria A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Ponta de São Lourenço Portugal A2, A4ii, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C6  
Poole Harbour United Kingdom A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Port Colborne (breakwater and mainland) Canada A4i, A4iii
Porto Santo Oeste Portugal A2, B2, B3, C6  
Prut river flood-plain: Vlădeşti: Frumuşiţa Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Pulau Bruit National Park Malaysia A1, A4i    
Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona Italy A1, A4i, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C6
Ribble and Alt Estuaries United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Richards Bay Game Reserve South Africa A1, A4i, A4iii
River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth Italy B2, B3, C2, C6
Riverton Sandy Bar Canada A4i, A4iii
Rockabill Ireland A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6
Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Sable Island, Nova Scotia Canada A4i    
Salines de l'Etang de Berre France C6
Salmor rocky islets Spain B1ii, B2, C2, C6  
Saltosarayskoye lake Russia (Central Asian) A1, A4i
San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands Aruba (to Netherlands) A4i, B4i    
Sandwich Harbour Namibia A1, A4i, A4iii  
Santa Pola salt-pans Spain A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde Belgium A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Selenga delta Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Serra Branca Portugal A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C6    
Shahdidi spit Azerbaijan A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Shoshkakol Lakes Kazakhstan A1, A4i
Siiksaare-Oessaare bays Estonia A4i, B1i, C2, C3, C6
Skoki Gravel-Pit Poland C6
Solent Marshes and Southampton Water United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Songor Ramsar Site Ghana A4i, A4iii
South-west coast of La Gomera Spain B1ii, B2, C2, C6  
Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen Austria A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Srebarna Bulgaria A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Storage lakes on the lower Inn Austria A4iii, C4, C6
Strangford Lough and islands United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Syvash Bay Ukraine A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3
Tabusintac Lagoon and River Estuary Canada A4i
Taro river Italy B2, C2, C6
The Wash United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Trebonsko (Trebon region) Czech Republic A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Tyligul's'kyj lyman Ukraine A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Ulukhkol' lake Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Upper streams of Ob' river Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Upper Vistula River Valley Poland C6
Vaindloo island Estonia C6
Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze France B1i, B1iv, C2, C5, C6
Val d'Allier Bourbonnais France A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6
Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac France A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau France A1, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C6
Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois France C6
Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire France C6
Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire France C6
Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais France B1i, C3, C6
Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize France A1, C1, C6
Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6
Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon Italy B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Vallehermoso coast Spain C6  
Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano Italy A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Väinameri Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Venice lagoon Italy A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Voorhaven Zeebrugge and Baai van Heist Belgium A4i, B1i, C2  
Walvis Bay Namibia A1, A4i, A4iii
Warta River Mouth Poland C2, C3, C4, C6
Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire Netherlands Antilles A1, A2, A3, A4i, B4i    
West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands South Africa A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Western part of lake Mälaren Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
Westerschelde and Saeftinghe Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Workumerwaard Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays Ukraine A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Yashma Island Azerbaijan A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Yeiski salt-lakes Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries United Kingdom B1i, B2, C2, C6  
Zwin Belgium B1i, B3, C3, C6  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Cerrado Brazil No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
East Melanesian Islands Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
New Caledonia New Caledonia No
Philippines Philippines No
Southwest Australia Australia No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No
Wallacea East Timor, Indonesia No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Anchoa marinii (Marini's anchovy)[5]
Cyclocephala signaticollis[5]
Dyscinetus gagates[5]
Dyscinetus rugifrons[5]
Engraulis anchoita (Anchoita)[5]
Odontesthes argentinensis (Pejerrey silverside)[5]
Odontesthes incisa (Silverside)[5]
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)1
Carcharodon carcharias (Maneater shark)1
Caretta caretta (Loggerhead)1
Cynoscion guatucupa (Stripped weakfish)1
Galeocerdo cuvier (Tiger-shark)1
Hoplias malabaricus (Trahira)1
Isurus oxyrinchus (Short-finned mako)1
Leucocarbo atriceps (imperial shag)1
Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Neotropic Cormorant)4
Phalacrocorax magellanicus (rock shag)1
Podicephorus major (Great Grebe)2
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)1
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)1
Rynchops niger (Black Skimmer)5
Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt Penguin)1
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)1
Sterna hirundinacea (South American Tern)1
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)1
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)1

Predators

Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Alloheterophyes chini <Unverified Name>[7]
Alloheterophyes superspinata <Unverified Name>[7]
Apophallus muehlingi[7]
Aporchis rugosus[7]
Baruscapillaria carbonis <Unverified Name>[7]
Capillaria carbonis <Unverified Name>[7]
Capillaria contorta <Unverified Name>[7]
Cercarioides aharonii[7]
Cercarioides baylisi <Unverified Name>[7]
Choanotaenia porosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Clinostomum complanatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cotylurus erraticus[7]
Cotylurus pileatus[7]
Cotylurus platycephalus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cryptocotyle concava[7]
Cryptocotyle lingua[7]
Cyathocotyle oviformis <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathocotyloides dubius <Unverified Name>[7]
Dilepis undula[7]
Diphyllobothrium dendriticum[7]
Diphyllobothrium ditremum[7]
Diplostomum chromatophorum[7]
Diplostomum commutatum[7]
Diplostomum flexicaudum[7]
Diplostomum gobiorum[7]
Diplostomum helveticum[7]
Diplostomum huronense[7]
Diplostomum murrayense <Unverified Name>[7]
Diplostomum nordmanni[7]
Diplostomum repandum <Unverified Name>[7]
Diplostomum rutili[7]
Diplostomum spathaceum[7]
Diplostomum volvens[7]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[7]
Echinochasmus bursicola <Unverified Name>[7]
Echinoparyphium baculus <Unverified Name>[7]
Echinoparyphium clerci <Unverified Name>[7]
Echinostoma revolutum[7]
Erschoviorchis lintoni <Unverified Name>[7]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[7]
Eucoleus laricola <Unverified Name>[7]
Eufilaria lari <Unverified Name>[7]
Eulimdana metcalforum <Unverified Name>[7]
Galactosomum baylisi[7]
Galactosomum dollfusi[7]
Galactosomum lacteum[7]
Galactosomum puffini <Unverified Name>[7]
Galactosomum ussuriense <Unverified Name>[7]
Gigantobilharzia acotylea[7]
Heterophyes heterophyes[7]
Heterophyes superspinata <Unverified Name>[7]
Heterotestophyes sobolevi[7]
Hymenolepis fusus <Unverified Name>[7]
Ichthyocotylurus erraticus[7]
Ichthyocotylurus pileatus[7]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[7]
Lateriporus clerci[7]
Ligula intestinalis[7]
Linstowiella viviparae <Unverified Name>[7]
Maritrema echinocirrata[7]
Maritrema oocysta[7]
Maritrema subdolum[7]
Mesorchis denticulatus[7]
Mesorchis pseudoechinatus[7]
Mesorchis reynoldi[7]
Metorchis xanthostomus[7]
Microphallus papillorobustus[7]
Microphallus similis[7]
Notocotylus attenuatus[7]
Ornithobilharzia canaliculata[7]
Ornithobilharzia intermedia <Unverified Name>[7]
Ornithobilharzia kowalewskii[7]
Pachytrema calculus[7]
Pachytrema compositum <Unverified Name>[7]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[7]
Paricterotaenia porosa[7]
Paricterotaenia sternina[7]
Plagiorchis brauni <Unverified Name>[7]
Plagiorchis laricola[7]
Plagiorchis maculosus <Unverified Name>[7]
Plagiorchis multiglandularis <Unverified Name>[7]
Plagiorchis nanus[7]
Plagiorchis schuchovi <Unverified Name>[7]
Plagiorchis vitellatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[7]
Pseudamphimerus sterni[7]
Pseudhemistomum minor <Unverified Name>[7]
Pseudhemistomum unicum <Unverified Name>[7]
Quadraceps sellatus[8]
Rusguniella elongata <Unverified Name>[7]
Stephanoprora pseudoechinatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Stictodora sawakinensis[7]
Streptocara crassicauda <Unverified Name>[7]
Strigea falconis[7]
Tanaisia atra <Unverified Name>[7]
Tanaisia fedtschenkoi[7]
Tanaisia integerriorcha <Unverified Name>[7]
Tanaisia macrorchis <Unverified Name>[7]
Tetrabothrius erostris[7]
Tetrabothrius mawsoni[7]
Tetracladium sternae[7]
Tetracotyle ardea <Unverified Name>[7]
Variolepis farciminosa[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Biodome de Montreal
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Buttonwood Park Zoo
Cologne Zoo
New England Aquarium
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Tama Zoological Park
Ueno Zoological Gardens

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park; North America;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Banks R.C., 2011-09-22, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4OPTIMISATION OF THE FLIGHT SPEED OF THE LITTLE, COMMON AND SANDWICH TERN, JAMES M. WAKELING AND JENNIFER HODGSON, J. exp. Biol. 169, 261-266 (1992) 5DIET OF THE COMMON TERN (STERNA HIRUNDO) DURING THE NONBREEDING SEASON IN MAR CHIQUITA LAGOON, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA, Laura Mauco & Marco Favero, ORNITOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL 15: 121–131, 2004 6BREEDING SEASON DIET OF SHORT-EARED OWLS IN MASSACHUSETTS, DENVER W. HOLT, Wilson Bull., 105(3), 1993, pp. 490-496 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 8Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011