Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Sterna > Sterna paradisaea
 

Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. This bird has a circumpolar breeding distribution covering the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and North America (as far south as Brittany and Massachusetts). The species is strongly migratory, seeing two summers each year as it migrates along a convoluted route from its northern breeding grounds to the Antarctic coast.
View Wikipedia Record: Sterna paradisaea

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
14
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 2.86207
EDGE Score: 1.3512

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  100 grams
Birth Weight [2]  13 grams
Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Male Maturity [2]  3 years
Clutch Size [3]  2
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Incubation [2]  21 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  34 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Speed [4]  24.38 MPH (10.9 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Coastal
Wing Span [4]  31 inches (.8 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Brigalow tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Clipperton Island shrub and grasslands France Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Coolgardie woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Australian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Esperance mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eyre and York mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Jarrah-Karri forest and shrublands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Magellanic subpolar forests Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mount Lofty woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namib desert Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Naracoorte woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Niger Delta swamp forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Novosibirsk Islands arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra
Nullarbor Plains xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Patagonian steppe Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Queensland tropical rain forests Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southeast Australia temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra South Africa, France, Australia Antarctic Tundra    
Southwest Australia woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Swan Coastal Plain Scrub and Woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Tirari-Sturt stony desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Tristan Da Cunha-Gough Islands shrub and grasslands United Kingdom Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands    
Valdivian temperate forests Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Borkum-Riffgrund 154559 Germany      
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Frostvikenfjällen 231768 Sweden  
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Horsens Fjord og Endelave 105168 Denmark  
Itäisen Suomenlahden saaristo ja vedet 236302 Finland    
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
KALDOAIVIN ERÄMAA 868904 Finland  
KOITELAINEN 120928 Finland  
Katmai National Park and Preserve Ib 421782 Alaska, United States
Kevo 176448 Finland  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
KÄSIVARREN ERÄMAA 654562 Finland  
LEMMENJOEN KANSALLISPUISTO 706697 Finland  
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
Lahemaa 183898 Estonia  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Långfjället-Städjan-Nipfjället 231784 Sweden  
Læsø, sydlige del 253812 Denmark    
MARAIS POITEVIN 168088 France  
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
Madidi National Park II 3194501 Bolivia  
Marais Breton, baie de Bourgneuf, île de Noirmoutier et forêt de Monts 137949 France  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Muddus 124105 Sweden  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
POMOKAIRA 228222 Finland  
PULJUN ERÄMAA 139246 Finland  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padjelanta 493958 Sweden  
Pallas-Ounastunturi 146845 Finland  
Pape 127946 Latvia      
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pernajanlahtien ja Pernajan saariston merensuojelualue 162534 Finland  
Pessinki fjällurskog 240249 Sweden  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
PÖYRISJÄRVEN ERÄMAA 362835 Finland  
Pärnu lahe 270781 Estonia  
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Rogen 121145 Sweden  
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Saaristomeri 147873 Finland    
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Seevogelschutzgebiet Helgoland 398663 Germany    
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Skäckerfjällen 114283 Sweden  
Smålandshavet nord for Lolland 102895 Denmark  
Sydfynske Øhav 111163 Denmark  
Sylter Außenriff 1313190 Germany      
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Tammisaaren ja Hangon saariston ja Pohjanpitäjänlahden merensuojelualue 130052 Finland  
Tavvavuoma 133292 Sweden  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
UK-PUISTO-SOMPIO-KEMIHAARA 765461 Finland  
Uudenkaupungin saaristo 140830 Finland  
Vardo- Laster- och Fjällfjällen 262367 Sweden  
Vindelfjällen 1370631 Sweden  
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Vättern (östra) 158858 Sweden  
Vålådalen 299933 Sweden  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waddenzee 672193 Netherlands    
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Zalew Wislany i Mierzeja Wislana 100974 Poland  
Zatoka Pucka 154269 Poland    
Östliche Kieler Bucht 184563 Germany  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Aran Islands (parts) Ireland C6
Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Cap Gris-nez France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4  
Connemara Islands Ireland B1i, B2, C2, C6
Coquet Island United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Fair Isle United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Farne Islands United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Foula United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C    
Griend Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Holmöarna archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C6
Hrísey Iceland A4i, A4iii, B1i
Inishkeeragh and Illancrone Ireland B2, C2, C6  
Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park Finland B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Kahtla-Kübassaare Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6
Kitsissunnguit (Grønne Ejland) Greenland (to Denmark) A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Kolga bay Estonia C6  
Lady's Island Lake Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C4, C6
Lahemaa Estonia A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C6
Lauwersmeer Netherlands A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6  
Lower Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A3, A4i, A4iii
Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh Ireland B2, B3, C6  
Merenkurkku archipelago Finland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B1iv, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
North Westray Coast United Kingdom B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C6  
Northumbria Coast United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C6
Northwestern Kattegat Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Onega Bay of the White Sea Russia (European) A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3  
Outer Ards United Kingdom A4i, B1i, C3, C6
Outer Stockholm archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Papa Stour United Kingdom C6  
Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm) United Kingdom B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C6  
Pärnu bay (NEW) Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6
Pentland Firth Islands United Kingdom A4iii, B3, C2, C4, C6
Rauma and Luvia archipelagos Finland B2, B3, C2
Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Rottumeroog Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6    
Rottumerplaat Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4, C6    
Rousay United Kingdom C6  
Siiksaare-Oessaare bays Estonia A4i, B1i, C2, C3, C6
Smålandsfarvandet Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2  
Strangford Lough and islands United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Sydfynske Ø-hav Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6  
The Archipelago of Nothern Hälsingland Sweden B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C6  
Upper and Middle Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Vaindloo island Estonia C6
Väinameri Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
West Westray United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C3, C4, C6  
Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries United Kingdom B1i, B2, C2, C6  

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[5]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[6]
Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Norwegian krill)[7]
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)[6]
Thysanoessa inermis[7]
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)1
Alosa sapidissima (American shad)1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)1
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)1
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)1
Aythya fuligula (Tufted Duck)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)3
Balaenoptera musculus (Blue Whale)1
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)1
Bathyraja interrupta (Sandpaper skate)1
Beringraja binoculata (Big skate)1
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)2
Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye)1
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)1
Centropristis striata (Sea bass)1
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)2
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)1
Chroicocephalus philadelphia (Bonaparte's Gull)2
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)3
Clupea harengus (Yawling)1
Coryphaenoides rupestris (Roundnose grenadier)1
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)1
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)1
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)1
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)1
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)1
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)1
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)1
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)1
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)2
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)1
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)2
Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)2
Haliaeetus pelagicus (Steller's Sea-Eagle)1
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)1
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)1
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Lepidopus caudatus (Southern frostfish)1
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)1
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)1
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)2
Melanitta nigra (Black Scoter)1
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)1
Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)2
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)1
Merluccius productus (Whiting)1
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)1
Nansenia candida (Bluethroat argentine)1
Nezumia bairdii (Marlin-spike grenadier)1
Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Leach's Storm-Petrel)2
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)1
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)1
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)1
Phycis chesteri (Longfin hake)1
Platalea leucorodia (Eurasian Spoonbill)1
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)1
Podiceps auritus (Horned Grebe)1
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)2
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)1
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)1
Ptychocheilus oregonensis (Seatrout)1
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)1
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)1
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)2
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)1
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)2
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)1
Scomber scombrus (Split)1
Scophthalmus aquosus (brill)1
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)1
Sebastes caurinus (Copper rockfish)1
Sebastes crameri (Rockfish)1
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)1
Sebastes melanops (Black bass)1
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)1
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)2
Uria aalge (Common Murre)1
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)1
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aploparaksis diagonalis[9]
Arhythmorhynchus petrotschenkoi[9]
Ceratophyllus borealis[10]
Cotylurus cornutus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cotylurus erraticus[9]
Cotylurus pileatus[9]
Cryptocotyle concava[9]
Cryptocotyle lingua[9]
Cyathocotyloides dubius <Unverified Name>[9]
Diplostomum commutatum[9]
Diplostomum rauschi <Unverified Name>[9]
Diplostomum repandum <Unverified Name>[9]
Erschoviorchis lintoni <Unverified Name>[9]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[9]
Gymnophallus affinis <Unverified Name>[9]
Holostephanus bursiformis <Unverified Name>[9]
Holostephanus luhei[9]
Linstowiella viviparae <Unverified Name>[9]
Microphallus pirum[9]
Pseudhemistomum unicum <Unverified Name>[9]
Quadraceps houri[11]
Spelotrema papillorobusta <Unverified Name>[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Alaska SeaLife Center
Buttonwood Park Zoo
Tierpark Dählhölzli

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park; North America; Oceania;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 5Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 6Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake, Per-Arne Amundsen, Kevin D. Lafferty, Rune Knudsen, Raul Primicerio, Anders Klemetsen and Armand M. Kuris, Journal of Animal Ecology 2009, 78, 563–572 7FEEDING ECOLOGY OF NONBREEDING POPULATIONS OF LARIDS OFF DEER ISLAND, NEW BRUNSWICK, B. M. BRAUNE AND D. E. GASKIN, The Auk 99: 67-76. January 1982 8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 10International Flea Database 11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
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