Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Hydroprogne > Hydroprogne caspia
 

Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)

Synonyms: Sterna caspia
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia, formerly Sterna caspia) is a species of tern, with a subcosmopolitan but scattered distribution. Despite its extensive range, it is monotypic of its genus, and has no subspecies accepted either. In New Zealand it is also known by the Maori name taranui.
View Wikipedia Record: Hydroprogne caspia

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
8
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
26
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.22424
EDGE Score: 2.10709

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  1.42 lbs (644 g)
Birth Weight [2]  49 grams
Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Male Maturity [2]  3 years
Breeding Habitat [3]  Beaches and estuaries, Wetlands
Wintering Geography [3]  Widespread Coastal
Wintering Habitat [3]  Beaches and estuaries
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Endothermic [4]  10 %
Diet - Fish [4]  80 %
Diet - Scavenger [4]  10 %
Forages - Water Surface [4]  20 %
Forages - Underwater [4]  80 %
Clutch Size [2]  2
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  220,000
Incubation [2]  21 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  30 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Speed [5]  27.07 MPH (12.1 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [6]  4.4 feet (1.33 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Aldabra Island xeric scrub Seychelles Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arnhem Land tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Australian Alps montane grasslands Australia Australasia Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Brigalow tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Cantebury-Otago tussock grasslands New Zealand Australasia Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cape York Peninsula tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Carnarvon xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Carpentaria tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Congolian lowland forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central Ranges xeric scrub Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Coolgardie woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East African mangroves Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia Afrotropic Mangroves
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Australia mulga shrublands Australia Australasia Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Australian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Einasleigh upland savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Esperance mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Eyre and York mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Fiordland temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Sandy-Tanami desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican dry forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jarrah-Karri forest and shrublands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Kimberly tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Madagascar dry deciduous forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar lowland forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar mangroves Madagascar Afrotropic Mangroves
Madagascar subhumid forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maldives-Lakshadweep-Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests Maldives Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mitchell grass downs Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mount Lofty woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Murray-Darling woodlands and mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Myanmar Coast mangroves India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Mangroves  
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Namib desert Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Naracoorte woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nelson Coast temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
New Guinea mangroves Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Mangroves
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northland temperate kauri forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nullarbor Plains xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pilbara shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queensland tropical rain forests Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Rakiura Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red River freshwater swamp forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Richmond temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Simpson desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Socotra Island xeric shrublands Yemen Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Australia temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southeast Australia temperate savanna Australia Australasia Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southeastern Papuan rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern New Guinea freshwater swamp forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern New Guinea lowland rain forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southland temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southwest Australia savanna Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Australia woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Swan Coastal Plain Scrub and Woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tasmanian Central Highland forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tasmanian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tasmanian temperate rain forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Timor and Wetar deciduous forests East Timor, Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tirari-Sturt stony desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Trans Fly savanna and grasslands Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Victoria Plains tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Vogelkop-Aru lowland rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Westland temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Ao Phang Nga National Park Marine National Park II 103730 Thailand
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Baikalo-Lensky Zapovednik Ia 1630896 Irkutsk, Russia
Banc d'Arguin National Park II 2949017 Mauritania
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Camargue 546256 France  
Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve 123722 Viet Nam  
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve 864738 British Columbia, Canada  
Coorong National Park II 121235 South Australia, Australia
Currawinya Lakes National Park II 372252 Queensland, Australia
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU KAI EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PET 109185 Greece  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Daursky Biosphere Reserve 113150 Chita, Russia
Delta de l'Ebre 119562 Spain  
Diawling National Park II 163983 Mauritania  
Dolina Dolnego Bugu 183624 Poland  
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Fitzgerald River National Park II 732417 Western Australia, Australia
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hattah-Kulkyne NP and Murray-Kulkyne Park National Park II 122831 Victoria, Australia
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
IJsselmeer 279946 Netherlands    
Itäisen Suomenlahden saaristo ja vedet 236302 Finland    
KOILADA KAI EKVOLES SPERCHEIOU - MALIAKOS KOLPOS 117491 Greece  
Khakassia State Nature Reserve 661168 Khakassia, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
Kura kurgu 476839 Estonia  
LA NAVA-CAMPOS NORTE 135750 Spain  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
La Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d' Ankarafantsika National Park II 335701 Madagascar  
Laguna di Venezia 136417 Italy  
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
MARAIS POITEVIN 168088 France  
Marais Breton, baie de Bourgneuf, île de Noirmoutier et forêt de Monts 137949 France  
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ostoja Nadbuzanska 113759 Poland  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Pape 127946 Latvia      
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Pernajanlahtien ja Pernajan saariston merensuojelualue 162534 Finland  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Doñana Biosphere Reserve II 123801 Spain
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Riverland Biosphere Reserve Ia 1490891 South Australia, Australia
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Saaristomeri 147873 Finland    
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Seaflower Marine Protected Area 15125514 Colombia      
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Tammisaaren ja Hangon saariston ja Pohjanpitäjänlahden merensuojelualue 130052 Finland  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The W Region National Park II 549843 Niger  
Tongariro National Park II 196174 North Island, New Zealand
Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve VI 688326 Cambodia  
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Uudenkaupungin saaristo 140830 Finland  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wasur-Rawa Biru National Park 605464 Papua, Indonesia  
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
West Estonian Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 3854844 Estonia  
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Wilson's Promontory National Park II 119279 Victoria, Australia
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Zatoka Pucka 154269 Poland    

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Aden Yemen A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Aftout es Sâheli Mauritania A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Allahein to Kartung coast Gambia A4i
Archipelago of Östergötland Sweden B2, C6  
Arquipélago dos Bijagós Guinea-Bissau A4i, A4iii
Bahr Ibn Abbas: Ra's Isa Yemen A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Baie d'Ad Dakhla Morocco A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Banc d'Arguin National Park Mauritania A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Barr al Hikman Oman A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Büyük Menderes delta Turkey A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Björn archipelago Sweden A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6  
Black Sea Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Bråviken: Hävringe Sweden A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Budai Wetlands Taiwan A1, A4i
Bulanik and Malazgirt plains Turkey A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Camargue France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Cap Blanc Mauritania A4i, A4iii
Chott Boul Mauritania A1, A4i, A4iii
Coastal areas of eastern Öland island Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Coastal areas of eastern Gotland island Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6    
Dannskí¤r-í–rskí¤r islands Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
Danube Delta Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Delta du Saloum Senegal A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Delta of the Kuban' river Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i
Delta of the River Don Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1iv, B2
Diawling National Park Mauritania A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Dolgy Reef and Bol'shoi Fiskar archipelagos Russia (European) B1i, B2, B3  
Duqm Oman A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago Finland A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6  
Gräsö archipelago Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C6  
Haur Al Hammar Iraq A1, A2, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Holmöarna archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C6
Hurghada archipelago Egypt A1, A4i, A4ii
Iles Tristao Guinea A1, A4i, A4iii
Irbe strait Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon Spain A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park Finland B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Jiddah south corniche and port Saudi Arabia A4i, B1i, B2
Joal-Fadiouth Senegal A1, A4i
Kahtla-Kübassaare Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6
Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays Ukraine A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Keban Reservoir Turkey A4i, A4iii, B1i
Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site Ghana A4i, A4iii
Khanskoye Lake Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Khar Lake Mongolia A1, A4i
Khar Us Lake Mongolia A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Khawr Ghawi Oman A4i, B1i
Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay Finland A4i, B1i, C2
Kiziltash limans Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3  
Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago Finland A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago Finland B1i, B2, C3, C6
Krunnit archipelago Finland A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
La Petite Côte Senegal A1, A4i
Lac d'Aleg Mauritania A1, A4i, A4iii
Lac Débo: Lac Oualado Débo Mali A3, A4i, A4iii
Lac Horo Mali A1, A4i, A4iii
Lake Amvrakia Greece B1i, C2, C3
Lake St Lucia and Mkuze swamps South Africa A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4iii
Lake St. Martin Islands Canada A4i
Lake Storhjälmaren Sweden A4i, B1i, C2
Lake Tämnaren Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
Ledskär-Karlholm bay Sweden A4i, B1i, C2, C3  
Limestone Islands Canada A4i, A4iii
Little George Island Canada A4i
Lower Berg river wetlands South Africa A4i, A4iii
Masirah island Oman A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3
Merenkurkku archipelago Finland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B1iv, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Mesolongi and Aetoliko lagoons, and Acheloos and Evinos estuaries Greece A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Mouth of Samur river Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B3
Nemunas delta regional Park Lithuania A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Niumi National Park Gambia A4i
North-east Scania coastline and archipelago Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Oulu region wetlands Finland A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Oura and Enskeri archipelagos Finland B2, B3, C6
Outer Stockholm archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero Italy A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie Senegal A4i  
Pernaja outer archipelago Finland B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Pigeon Island Canada A4i
Pori archipelago and wetlands Finland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Porvoo outer archipelago Finland A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C6
Presqu'ile Provincial Park Canada A4i, A4iii
Rödkallen-SörÄspen Sweden B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C6  
Reserva de Biosfera RAMSAR Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca y Sabana Grande Colombia A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4iii
Sand Reef Islands Canada A4i
Sandwich Harbour Namibia A1, A4i, A4iii  
Spruce Island Reef Canada A4i
Strandstuguviken Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
Syvash Bay Ukraine A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3
Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago Finland A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Tana River Delta Kenya A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Tanbi wetland complex Gambia A4i, A4iii
Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve Gambia A1, A4i, A4iii
Tarut Bay Saudi Arabia A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3    
The Watchers Canada A4i, A4iii
Tuz lake Turkey A1, A4i, B1i, B1iii, B2, B3
Valaamski archipelago (including Palinsaari island) Russia (European) B2  
Väinameri Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Walvis Bay Namibia A1, A4i, A4iii
Yeiski salt-lakes Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
New Zealand New Zealand No
Philippines Philippines No
Southwest Australia Australia No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No
Wallacea East Timor, Indonesia No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Allosmerus elongatus (Whitebait smelt)[7]
Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[8]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[8]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[8]
Belone belone (Garfish)[8]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[8]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[8]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[8]
Cololabis saira (Skipper)[8]
Cymatogaster aggregata (Shiner)[7]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[8]
Engraulis anchoita (Anchoita)[8]
Engraulis australis (Australian anchovy)[8]
Engraulis capensis (Southern African anchovy)[8]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[8]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[8]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[8]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[8]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[8]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[8]
Hypomesus pretiosus (Surf smelt)[9]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[8]
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)[9]
Lumpenus sagitta (Eel-blenny)[7]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[8]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[8]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[8]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[8]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[8]
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)[9]
Oncorhynchus keta (Calico salmon)[7]
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)[9]
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)[9]
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)[9]
Phanerodon furcatus (White seaperch)[7]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[8]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[8]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[8]
Porichthys notatus (Midshipman)[9]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[8]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[8]
Rhacochilus vacca (Pile surfperch)[9]
Rhinichthys cataractae (Longnose dace)[7]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[8]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[8]
Schistocerca gregaria (desert locust)[10]
Scomberesox saurus (Atlantic saury)[8]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[8]
Thyrsites atun (snake mackerel)[8]
Trachurus mediterraneus (Mediterranean scad)[8]
Trachurus symmetricus (Scad)[8]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aechmophorus occidentalis (Western Grebe)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)1
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)1
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)2
Haliaeetus pelagicus (Steller's Sea-Eagle)1
Lamna ditropis (Salmon shark)1
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)1
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)1
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)2
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)1
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)1
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)2

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ceratophyllus garei[11]
Cercarioides aharonii[12]
Cryptocotyle concava[12]
Cryptocotyle lingua[12]
Diplostomum commutatum[12]
Diplostomum gobiorum[12]
Diplostomum huronense[12]
Diplostomum rauschi <Unverified Name>[12]
Diplostomum repandum <Unverified Name>[12]
Diplostomum rutili[12]
Diplostomum spathaceum[12]
Echinocotyle verschureni[12]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[12]
Galactosomum humbargari[8]
Galactosomum lacteum[12]
Heterotestophyes sobolevi[12]
Hymenolepis fusus <Unverified Name>[12]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[12]
Ligula intestinalis[12]
Ornithobilharzia canaliculata[12]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[12]
Parapsyllus taylori[11]
Philophthalmus andersoni <Unverified Name>[12]
Prosthogonimus cuneatus[12]
Protoheterophyes spuriocirrus <Unverified Name>[12]
Stictodora lari[12]
Streptocara crassicauda <Unverified Name>[12]
Streptocara pectinifera <Unverified Name>[13]
Tetracladium sternae[12]
Trichostrongylus incertus <Unverified Name>[13]
Viktorocara charadrii <Unverified Name>[12]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park
San Diego Zoo
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora

Range Map

Aldabra Special Reserve; Cape Peninsula National Park; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
6del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
7Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository.
10SYMENS, P. (1988). Effects of the mass migration of desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria on birds in the Taif area. Arabia.
11International Flea Database
12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
13Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access