Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Alcidae > Uria > Uria aalge

Uria aalge (Common Murre)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The common murre or common guillemot (Uria aalge) is a large auk. It is also known as the thin-billed murre in North America. It has a circumpolar distribution, occurring in low-Arctic and boreal waters in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. It spends most of its time at sea, only coming to land to breed on rocky cliff shores or islands. Common murres have fast direct flight but are not very agile. They are more manoeuvrable underwater, typically diving to depths of 30–60 m (98–197 ft). Depths of up to 180 m (590 ft) have been recorded.
View Wikipedia Record: Uria aalge


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.31286
EDGE Score: 2.2314


Adult Weight [2]  2.19 lbs (992 g)
Birth Weight [4]  108 grams
Female Maturity [6]  5 years
Male Maturity [6]  5 years
Breeding Habitat [3]  Coastal cliffs and islands, Coastal marine
Wintering Geography [3]  Coastal U.S./Canada
Wintering Habitat [3]  Coastal marine
Diet [5]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [5]  90 %
Diet - Invertibrates [5]  10 %
Forages - Underwater [5]  100 %
Clutch Size [6]  1
Clutches / Year [6]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  12,000,000
Incubation [6]  31 days
Maximum Longevity [6]  38 years
Migration [1]  Intracontinental
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [7]  28 inches (.707 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ANSE DU FIER D'ARS EN RE 11028 France  
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Borkum-Riffgrund 154559 Germany      
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Camaret 3148 France  
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chausey 203679 France  
Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve 864738 British Columbia, Canada  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Doggerbank 419820 Germany      
Dungeness 7966 England, United Kingdom
Estuaire de la Bidassoa et baie de Fontarabie 23423 France  
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Estuaire et marais de la Basse Seine 46555 France  
Falaise du Bessin Occidental 2965 France    
Firth of Lorn 51830 Scotland, United Kingdom
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Flamborough Head 15597 England, United Kingdom  
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hallands Väderö 4533 Sweden  
Horn Head to Fanad Head SPA 6006 Ireland    
Hoy 23474 Scotland, United Kingdom
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Hävringe-Källskären 27648 Sweden  
Isle of Portland to Studland Cliffs 3577 England, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Iveragh Peninsula SPA 8620 Ireland  
Kristiinankaupungin saaristo 19914 Finland  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
LITTORAL AUGERON 52930 France    
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lilla Middelgrund 44084 Sweden    
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru 3940 Wales, United Kingdom  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
Marismas de Santoña y Noja 16319 Spain    
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Mor Braz 99524 France    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Nipomo Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3725 California, United States
North Bull Island Nature Reserve IV 3544 Ireland  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Papa Stour 5132 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Pernajanlahtien ja Pernajan saariston merensuojelualue 162534 Finland  
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Pojezierze Slawskie 96729 Poland  
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve 32232 France  
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
SBZ 1 / ZPS 1 27164 Belgium  
SBZ 2 / ZPS 2 35751 Belgium  
SPA Pommersche Bucht 495241 Germany    
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Sankt Anna och Gryts skärgårdar 31837 Sweden    
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Seevogelschutzgebiet Helgoland 398663 Germany    
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Strangford Lough 38051 Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
Svenska Högarna 6591 Sweden  
Sylter Außenriff 1313190 Germany      
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Lizard 8048 England, United Kingdom    
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tintagel–Marsland–Clovelly Coast 6004 England, United Kingdom  
Treshnish Isles 4850 Scotland, United Kingdom
Tête de Canyon du Cap Ferret 903514 France      
Urdaibaiko Itsasadarra / Ría de Urdaibai 8011 Spain  
Västerbådan, Lågagrundet 3951 Sweden    
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
West Donegal Coast SPA 8347 Ireland    
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Îles Sainte-Marie Canada A4iii
Bay of Skälderviken Sweden A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B1iv, B2, B3, C3, C4, C5, C6
Bjørnøya (Bear Island) Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2  
Bogoslova island Russia (Asian) A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Bonaventure Island Canada A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Bonden island Sweden B1ii, B2, B3, C3  
Bråviken: Hävringe Sweden A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Caithness Cliffs United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
Cape St. Mary's Canada A4ii, A4iii
Cíes islands Spain A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Costa de la Muerte (North coast) Spain A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Fair Isle United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Firth of Forth Islands United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C
Flamborough Head and Bempton Cliffs United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C4  
Foula United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C    
Fowlsheugh United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3, C3, C4
Funk Island Canada A4ii, A4iii    
Gannet Islands Canada A4ii, A4iii  
Grímsey Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3  
Handa United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B3, C3, C4
Hælavíkurbjarg Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3  
Iony island Russia (Asian) A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Karlsö islands Sweden A4iii, B1ii, B3, C3, C4
Krísuvíkurberg Iceland A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3
Kullaberg Sweden B1ii, B3, C3, C6
Kunashir island Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4ii  
Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Lambay Island Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3, C2, C3, C4
Látrabjarg Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3    
Lille Middelgrund Denmark A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, C3  
Little Middelgrund Sweden A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, C3
Marwick Head United Kingdom A4iii, B1ii, C3, C4  
Mingulay and Berneray United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B3, C3, C4  
North Rona and Sula Sgeir United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6    
Noss United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C4
Outer Stockholm archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Rathlin Island United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B3, C3, C4
Ritur Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii  
Skagerrak-Southwest Norwegian trench Denmark A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C3, C4  
Skúvoy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3
Skoruvík-Skálabjarg Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3  
St Abbs Head to Fast Castle United Kingdom A4iii, B1ii, B3, C3, C4  
Troup, Pennan and Lion Heads United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3, C3, C4  
Tyuleniy island Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Utashud island Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Vasiliya islands Russia (Asian) A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Vestmannaeyjar Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2
Walrus Islands USA A4i, A4ii
West Westray United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C3, C4, C6  
Witless Bay Islands Canada A4i, A4ii, A4iii

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Japan Japan No

Prey / Diet

Allosmerus elongatus (Whitebait smelt)[8]
Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[9]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[10]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[11]
Atherinops affinis (Topsmelt silverside)[8]
Aulorhynchus flavidus (Tube-snout)[9]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[9]
Brachyistius frenatus (Brown sea-perch)[8]
Chilara taylori (Spotted cusk-eel)[8]
Citharichthys sordidus (Sanddab)[8]
Citharichthys stigmaeus (Speckled sanddab)[8]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[11]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[9]
Cololabis saira (Skipper)[8]
Cymatogaster aggregata (Shiner)[9]
Doryteuthis opalescens (california market squid)[12]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[9]
Embiotoca lateralis (Blue seaperch)[8]
Engraulis anchoita (Anchoita)[9]
Engraulis australis (Australian anchovy)[9]
Engraulis capensis (Southern African anchovy)[9]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[9]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[9]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[10]
Eumesogrammus praecisus (Fourline snakeblenny)[9]
Euphausia pacifica (Pacific krill)[8]
Furcina osimae (Sculpin)[9]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[10]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[9]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[13]
Gonatus fabricii (boreoatlantic armhook squid)[9]
Gymnammodytes semisquamatus (smoothed sandeel)[13]
Hexagrammos decagrammus (Kelp greenling)[8]
Hyperoplus lanceolatus (greater sand eel)[13]
Hypomesus pretiosus (Surf smelt)[9]
Icichthys lockingtoni (Brown rudderfish)[8]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[9]
Lampetra ayresii (Parasitic river lamprey)[9]
Leptoclinus maculatus (Daubed shanny)[9]
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)[8]
Lumpenus fabricii (Slender eelblenny)[10]
Lyopsetta exilis (Slender sole)[8]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[9]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[9]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[11]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[9]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[13]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[9]
Microgadus proximus (Tommy cod)[9]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[9]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[11]
Microstomus pacificus (Slippery sole)[8]
Octopus bimaculatus (california two-spot octopus)[8]
Octopus rubescens (East Pacific red octopus)[8]
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)[8]
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)[8]
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)[9]
Pandalus jordani (ocean shrimp)[8]
Parophrys vetulus (English sole)[8]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[9]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[9]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[9]
Porichthys notatus (Midshipman)[9]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[9]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[9]
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)[9]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[9]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[9]
Sebastes jordani (Slender rockfish)[9]
Spirinchus starksi (Night smelt)[9]
Spirinchus thaleichthys (Sacramento smelt)[8]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[10]
Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Smallfin lanternfish)[9]
Syngnathus leptorhynchus (slendernosed pipefish)[9]
Thaleichthys pacificus (Candlefish)[10]
Thysanoessa inermis[9]
Thysanoessa raschii (Arctic krill)[9]
Thysanoessa spinifera[9]
Trachurus symmetricus (Scad)[8]
Trichodon trichodon (Sandfish)[9]
Trisopterus capelanus (Poor cod)[13]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[13]
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)[9]
Trisopterus minutus (poor cod)[9]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[9]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alca torda (Razorbill)2
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)2
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)6
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)9
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)2
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)2
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)4
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)5
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)2
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)4
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)2
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)4
Dipturus batis (Blue skate)2
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)2
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)2
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)2
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)5
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)2
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)2
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)2
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)2
Gadus morhua (rock cod)2
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)3
Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)3
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)2
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)2
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)2
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)4
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)2
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)6
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)3
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)2
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)3
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)2
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)2
Leucoraja naevus (Cuckoo ray)2
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)2
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)3
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)2
Merluccius productus (Whiting)3
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)2
Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal)2
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)4
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)2
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)3
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)2
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)2
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)3
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)7
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)5
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)2
Pollachius virens (Sillock)2
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)3
Puffinus puffinus (Manx Shearwater)3
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)2
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)4
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)2
Sebastes caurinus (Copper rockfish)2
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)2
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)3
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)2
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)2
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)2
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)2


Corvus corax (Northern Raven)[9]
Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)[9]
Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)[14]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[9]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[9]
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)[15]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[9]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[9]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[9]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[9]
Vulpes lagopus (Arctic Fox)[16]
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)[9]


Parasitized by 
Alcataenia armillaris[17]
Contracaecum spiculigerum[17]
Contracaecum variegatum <Unverified Name>[17]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[17]
Cryptocotyle lingua[17]
Eustrongylides mergorum <Unverified Name>[17]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[17]
Paracuaria tridentata <Unverified Name>[17]
Stegophorus stellaepolaris <Unverified Name>[17]
Streptocara crassicauda <Unverified Name>[17]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Alaska SeaLife Center
Aquamarine Fukushima
Biodome de Montreal
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Monterey Bay Aquarium
Oceanario de Lisboaaalge
Oregon Coast Aquarium
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
Rotterdam Zoo
Sea World Orlando
Tokyo Sea Life Park

Range Map

North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Threlfall, W. and SP Mahoney. 1980. The use of measurements in sexing Common Murres from Newfoundland. Wilson Bulletin 92: 266-268
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
5Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
6de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
7Anatomy and Histochemistry of Flight Muscles in a Wing-Propelled Diving Bird, the Atlantic Puffin, Fratercula arctica, Christopher E. Kovacs and Ron A. Meyers, JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY 244:109–125 (2000)
8Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository.
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
11An estimate of summer food consumption of six seabird species in Iceland, K. Lilliendahl and J. Solmundsson, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54: 624–630. 1997
12CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
13Seasonal and geographical variations in the diet of Common Guillemots Uria aalge off western Scotland, D J Halley, N. Harrison, A. Webb and D.R. Thompson, SEABIRD 17: 12-20
14POTAPOV, E. 2011. Gyrfalcon diet: Spatial and temporal variation In R. T. Watson, T. J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (Eds.). Gyrfalcons and Ptarmigan in a Changing World. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA
15Diets of adult and chick Herring Gulls Larus argentatus argenteus on Ailsa Craig, south-west Scotland., M. Nogales, B. Zonfrillo and P. Monaghan, SEABIRD 17: 56-63
165.1 Arctic fox, Alopex lagopus, A. Angerbjo&#776;rn, P. Hersteinsson and M. Tannerfeldt, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp.
17Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
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