Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Alcidae > Brachyramphus > Brachyramphus marmoratus

Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)

Synonyms: Brachyrampus marmoratus

Wikipedia Abstract

The marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small seabird from the North Pacific. It is a member of the auk family. It nests in old-growth forests or on the ground at higher latitudes where trees cannot grow. Its habit of nesting in trees was suspected but not documented until a tree-climber found a chick in 1974, making it one of the last North American bird species to have its nest described. The marbled murrelet has declined in number since humans began logging its nest trees in the latter half of the 19th century. The decline of the marbled murrelet and its association with old-growth forests, at least in the southern part of its range, have made it a flagship species in the forest preservation movement. In Canada (north of 50° North Latitude) and Alaska, the declines are not
View Wikipedia Record: Brachyramphus marmoratus

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Brachyramphus marmoratus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.81528
EDGE Score: 4.36338


Adult Weight [2]  222 grams
Birth Weight [4]  59.8 grams
Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Male Maturity [2]  2 years
Breeding Habitat [3]  Temperate western forests, Coastal marine, Coastal cliffs and islands
Wintering Geography [3]  Pacific Coast
Wintering Habitat [3]  Coastal marine
Diet [5]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [5]  30 %
Diet - Invertibrates [5]  70 %
Forages - Underwater [5]  100 %
Clutch Size [6]  1
Clutches / Year [7]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  260,000
Incubation [6]  28 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  7 years
Migration [1]  Intraoceanic
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [8]  17 inches (.443 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve 864738 British Columbia, Canada  
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Gulf Islands National Park National Park Reserve II 8785 British Columbia, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Tomales Bay State Park 1659 California, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Barkley Sound Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Cleland Island and Southeast Clayoquot Sound Canada A1, A4i
Desolation Sound Canada A1
Harriman Fjord USA A1
Icy Bay USA A1
Nootka Island banks Canada A1
Port Snettisham USA A1
Uganik Bay and Viekoda Bay USA A1

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[9]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[10]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[9]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[9]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[11]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[9]
Cymatogaster aggregata (Shiner)[10]
Doryteuthis opalescens (california market squid)[11]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[9]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[9]
Euphausia pacifica (Pacific krill)[9]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[9]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[9]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[9]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[9]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[9]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[11]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[9]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[9]
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (humpbacked salmon)[9]
Oncorhynchus nerka (sockeye salmon or kokanee)[9]
Osmerus eperlanus (European smelt)[9]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[9]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[9]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[9]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[9]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[9]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[9]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[9]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[9]
Thysanoessa inermis[11]
Thysanoessa raschii (Arctic krill)[9]
Thysanoessa spinifera[10]
Trichodon trichodon (Sandfish)[9]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)2
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)4
Balaenoptera musculus (Blue Whale)2
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)2
Bathyraja interrupta (Sandpaper skate)2
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)2
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)2
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)2
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)3
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)2
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)2
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)2
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)3
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)2
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)3
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)3
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)2
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)2
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)3
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)2
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)2
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)2
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)4
Merluccius productus (Whiting)2
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)2
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)2
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)2
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)3
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)2
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)3
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)2
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)3
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)4
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)3
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)2
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)2
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)4
Uria aalge (Common Murre)4


Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)[9]
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)[9]
Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)[9]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[9]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[9]

Range Map

North America;


Play / PauseVolume



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
5Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
6Comparative Reproductive Ecology of the Auks (Family Alcidae) with Emphasis on the Marbled Murrelet, Toni L. De Santo, S. Kim Nelson, USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-152. 1995. pp. 33-47
7del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
8Anatomy and Histochemistry of Flight Muscles in a Wing-Propelled Diving Bird, the Atlantic Puffin, Fratercula arctica, Christopher E. Kovacs and Ron A. Meyers, JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY 244:109–125 (2000)
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
11Marbled Murrelet Food Habits and Prey Ecology, Esther E. Burkett, USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-152. 1995., Chap 22, p. 223-246
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2