Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Alcidae > Fratercula > Fratercula arctica

Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica), also known as the common puffin, is a species of seabird in the auk family. It is the only puffin native to the Atlantic Ocean; two related species, the tufted puffin and the horned puffin, are found in the northeastern Pacific. The Atlantic puffin breeds in Iceland, Norway, Greenland, Newfoundland and many North Atlantic islands, and as far south as Maine in the west and the British Isles in the east. With a large population and a wide range, the species is not considered to be endangered, although there may be local declines in numbers. On land, it has the typical upright stance of an auk. At sea, it swims on the surface and feeds mainly on small fish, which it catches by diving underwater, using its wings for propulsion.
View Wikipedia Record: Fratercula arctica


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.24392
EDGE Score: 1.98016


Adult Weight [2]  1.08 lbs (491 g)
Birth Weight [2]  40 grams
Female Maturity [2]  4 years
Male Maturity [2]  4 years
Breeding Habitat [3]  Coastal cliffs and islands, Coastal marine
Wintering Geography [3]  Atlantic Coast
Wintering Habitat [3]  Coastal marine, Pelagic
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [4]  80 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  20 %
Forages - Underwater [4]  100 %
Clutch Size [2]  1
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  12,000,000
Incubation [2]  42 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  34 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [5]  22 inches (.55 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Alderney West Coast and the Burhou Islands 38620 United Kingdom      
Anda 128 Norway      
Baie de Morlaix 67680 France    
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Bills Rocks SPA 370 Ireland  
Buchan Ness to Collieston 513 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caerlaverock National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Calamocarro-Benzú 1487 Spain  
Cap de Barbaria 6120 Spain  
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Clare Island SPA 2486 Ireland  
Cliffs of Moher SPA 2160 Ireland  
Clogwyni Pen Llyn/ Seacliffs of Lleyn 2591 Wales, United Kingdom
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
East Caithness Cliffs 1094 Scotland, United Kingdom
Fair Isle 1387 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Firth of Lorn 51830 Scotland, United Kingdom
Flamborough Head 15597 England, United Kingdom  
Foret Domaniale du Circeo State Nature Reserve IV 4785 Italy  
Glannau Ynys Gybi/ Holy Island Coast 1147 Wales, United Kingdom  
Horn Head to Fanad Head SPA 6006 Ireland    
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Illanmaster SPA 408 Ireland    
Isle of May 882 Scotland, United Kingdom
Isle of Portland to Studland Cliffs 3577 England, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
La Mola 5390 Spain    
Lambay Island SPA 1482 Ireland  
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru 3940 Wales, United Kingdom  
Loch nam Madadh 5734 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Neusiedler See-Osterreichischer Teil   Austria      
North Bull Island Nature Reserve IV 3544 Ireland  
North Fetlar 3909 Scotland, United Kingdom  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Rona 1553 Scotland, United Kingdom    
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Oldshoremore and Sandwood 1096 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
Overstrand Cliffs 74 England, United Kingdom    
Papa Stour 5132 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Plymouth Sound and Estuaries 15820 England, United Kingdom
Puffin Island SPA 863 Ireland  
Reserve de la Biosphere d'Iroise Biosphere Reserve IV 118 France  
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve 32232 France  
Ronas Hill – North Roe 12110 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Ses Salines d'Eivissa i Formentera 40611 Spain  
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Skelligs SPA 1543 Ireland      
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
St Albans Head to Durlston Head 710 England, United Kingdom
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
St. Kilda National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom    
Stagnone di Marsala e Saline di Trapani - area marina e terrestre 8859 Italy    
Stags of Broad Haven SPA 337 Ireland    
Stromness Heaths and Coast 1571 Scotland, United Kingdom  
The Bull and The Cow Rocks SPA 940 Ireland  
Tingon 1407 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Tintagel–Marsland–Clovelly Coast 6004 England, United Kingdom  
Tory Island SPA 1501 Ireland    
Treshnish Isles 4850 Scotland, United Kingdom
Urdaibaiko Itsasadarra / Ría de Urdaibai 8011 Spain  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  
Yell Sound Coast 3807 Scotland, United Kingdom

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Ainov islands Russia (European) B1i, B2, B3  
Anda Norway B2  
Assissut (Braendvinsskaerene) near Kronprinsens Ejland Greenland (to Denmark) B2
Álftanes-Akrar Iceland A4i, B1i, B2
Baccalieu Island Canada A4ii, A4iii  
Baie de Brador Canada A4iii
Blasket Islands Ireland A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6    
Bleiksøy Norway A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2  
Breidafjördur Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3
Cliffs of Moher Ireland A4iii, B2, B3, C4
Coquet Island United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Fair Isle United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Farne Islands United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Firth of Forth Islands United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C
Flamborough Head and Bempton Cliffs United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C4  
Foula United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C    
Fugloy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3  
Gannet Islands Canada A4ii, A4iii  
Gavrilovski archipelago Russia (European) A4iii, B2  
Gjesværstappan Norway A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3  
Grímsey Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3  
Hermaness, Saxa Vord and Valla Field United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C4  
Hestur Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2
Hjelmsøy Norway A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3    
Hornøy and Reinøy Norway A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3, C4  
Illaunmaistir (Oilean Maistir) Ireland A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, C2, C4, C6  
Islands and waters south and west of Upernavik town Greenland (to Denmark) A4iii, B1ii, B2
Islands west and north-west of Simiuttat and south of Qilangarsuit Greenland (to Denmark) B2, B3
Kalsoy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2  
Koltur Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2
Látrabjarg Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3    
Lítla Dímun Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2
Loppa Norway A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3  
Lovunden Norway A1, A4iii, B1ii, B2  
Mykines and Mykineshólmur Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3    
Nólsoy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2
Nord-Fugløy Norway A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2  
Nunatsiaq (Rotten) Greenland (to Denmark) B2
Nykvåg Norway A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2  
Papey Iceland A4iii, B2
Puffin Island Ireland A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Qilangaarsuit and adjacent islands Greenland (to Denmark) A4i, B1i, B2
Røst Norway A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3    
Runde Norway A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3  
Saltee Islands Ireland B2, B3, C7
Sandoy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3
Sør-Fugløy Norway A1, A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3    
Seven islands Russia (European) A4iii, B1i, B2, B3  
Shiant Isles United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
Skúvoy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3
Skrúdur Iceland B2
St Kilda United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6    
Stóra Dímun Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2
Strait of Gibraltar Gibraltar (to UK) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C1, C2, C3, C4
Streymoy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3  
Suduroy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3
Sule Skerry and Sule Stack United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6    
Svínoy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2  
The Skelligs: Great Skellig and Little Skellig Ireland A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6    
Vágar Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3  
Værøy Norway A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2  
Vestmannaeyjar Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2
Vidoy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2  
Wadham Islands and adjacent Marine Area Canada A4i, A4iii    
Witless Bay Islands Canada A4i, A4ii, A4iii

Emblem of

Newfoundland & Labrador

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[6]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[6]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[7]
Benthosema glaciale (Large-eyed froghead)[8]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[6]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[6]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[6]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[6]
Enchelyopus cimbrius (Rockling)[6]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[6]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[6]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[6]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[6]
Gonatus fabricii (boreoatlantic armhook squid)[8]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[6]
Limanda aspera (Yellowfin sole)[6]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[6]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[6]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[8]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[6]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[6]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[6]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[6]
Molva molva (Ling)[6]
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (humpbacked salmon)[6]
Oncorhynchus keta (Calico salmon)[6]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[6]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[6]
Podothecus veternus (Veteran poacher)[6]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[6]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[6]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[6]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[6]
Silurus glanis (Danubian wels)[6]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[6]
Themisto abyssorum[6]
Themisto libellula[6]
Thysanoessa inermis[8]
Triglops pingelii (Ribbed sculpin)[6]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alca torda (Razorbill)2
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)3
Balaenoptera musculus (Blue Whale)1
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)2
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)1
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)2
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)1
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)1
Chroicocephalus philadelphia (Bonaparte's Gull)1
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)2
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)1
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)1
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)1
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)1
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)3
Gadus morhua (rock cod)2
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)1
Grampus griseus (Risso's Dolphin)1
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)1
Hyperoodon ampullatus (Northern Bottlenose Whale)1
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)1
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)1
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)1
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)1
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)1
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)2
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)2
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)1
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)2
Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Leach's Storm-Petrel)2
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)1
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)2
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)1
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)1
Phoca largha (Spotted Seal)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)1
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)2
Puffinus puffinus (Manx Shearwater)1
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)1
Pusa hispida (Ringed Seal)1
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)3
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)1
Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark)1
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)1
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)1
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)1
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)2


Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)[9]
Ursus maritimus (Polar Bear)[6]


Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[10]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus insularis[11]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[11]
Cryptocotyle lingua[10]
Gymnophallus deliciosus[10]
Ornithopsylla laetitiae[11]
Seuratia shipleyi <Unverified Name>[10]
Stegophorus stellaepolaris <Unverified Name>[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Biodome de Montreal
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
National Aquarium in Baltimore Inc
Oceanario de Lisboa
Rotterdam Zoo
Sea World Orlando
Tierpark Dählhölzli
Ueno Zoological Gardens

Range Map

North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5British Trust for Ornithology
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7An estimate of summer food consumption of six seabird species in Iceland, K. Lilliendahl and J. Solmundsson, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54: 624–630. 1997
8Winter Diet of Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica) in the Northeast Atlantic, Knud Falk, Jens-Kjeld Jensen and Kaj Kampp, Colonial Waterbirds, Vol. 15, No. 2 (1992), pp. 230-235
9POTAPOV, E. 2011. Gyrfalcon diet: Spatial and temporal variation In R. T. Watson, T. J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (Eds.). Gyrfalcons and Ptarmigan in a Changing World. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
11International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Ramsar Sites Information Service
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access