Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Columbiformes > Columbidae > Columba > Columba livia
 

Columba livia (Rock Pigeon; Rock Dove; Common Pigeon; pigeon biset)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Rock Dove (Columba livia) or Rock Pigeon, is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons). In common usage, this bird is often simply referred to as the "pigeon". The species includes the domestic pigeon, and escaped domestic pigeons have given rise to feral populations around the world. Wild Rock Doves are pale grey with two black bars on each wing, although domestic and feral pigeons are very variable in colour and pattern.
View Wikipedia Record: Columba livia

Infraspecies

Invasive Species

Columba livia is native to Europe and has been introduced worldwide as a food source, or for game. These pigeons prefer to live near human habitation, such as farmland and buildings. They cause considerable damage to buildings and monuments because of their corrosive droppings. They also pose a health hazard, since they are capable of transmitting a variety of diseases to humans and to domestic poultry and wildlife.
View ISSG Record: Columba livia

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
20
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.51029
EDGE Score: 1.70662

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  354 grams
Birth Weight [2]  15 grams
Female Maturity [2]  4 months 20 days
Male Maturity [2]  4 months 20 days
Clutch Size [3]  2
Clutches / Year [2]  3
Incubation [2]  18 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  35 years
Speed [4]  36.64 MPH (16.38 m/s)
Wing Span [5]  27 inches (.69 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Afghan Mountains semi-desert Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Al Hajar montane woodlands Oman Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Persian desert basins Iran, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Saharan montane xeric woodlands Chad, Sudan Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Ghorat-Hazarajat alpine meadow Afghanistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Helanshan montane conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Hindu Kush alpine meadow Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kuh Rud and Eastern Iran montane woodlands Iran Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar spiny thickets Madagascar Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Madeira evergreen forests Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe Morocco Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests India, Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Red River freshwater swamp forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Saharan halophytics Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sulaiman Range alpine meadows Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands Chad, Libya Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Trindade-Martin Vaz Islands tropical forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
West Saharan montane xeric woodlands Algeria, Niger, Mali, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Desert National Park II 672840 Rajasthan, India  
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Gaoligong Mountain National Nature Reserve V 1245925 Yunnan, China  
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grampians National Park II 416373 Victoria, Australia
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Gobi National Park Ia 13211440 Mongolia  
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hawaiian Islands Biosphere Reserve 245981 Hawaii, United States  
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Karoo National Park II 190300 Western Cape, South Africa
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
La Palma Biosphere Reserve 199419 Canary Islands, Spain    
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lore Lindu National Park II 577959 Sulawesi, Indonesia  
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
Mae Tuen Wildlife Sanctuary IV 307947 Thailand  
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Maya Multiple Use Area 1156412 Guatemala  
Murgia Alta 311059 Italy  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Pang Sida National Park II 211956 Thailand
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parque Atlantico Mar Chiquita Nature Reserve VI 706059 Cordoba, Argentina  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pu Mat National Park IV 239739 Viet Nam  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Riverland Biosphere Reserve Ia 1490891 South Australia, Australia
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
Sai Yok National Park II 235556 Thailand
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
Thap Lan National Park II 550979 Thailand
Thung Salaeng Luang National Park II 315222 Thailand
Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve VI 688326 Cambodia  
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Uluru - Kata Tjuta National Park II 332429 Northern Territory, Australia
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
West Caprivi Game Reserve Game Park VI 1448182 Namibia  
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Ficus platypoda (desert fig)[6]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Full list (193)
Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Coracina novaehollandiae (Black-faced Cuckooshrike)2
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)2
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)2
Scythrops novaehollandiae (Channel-billed Cuckoo)2

Predators

Aquila audax (Wedge-tailed Eagle)[7]
Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)[8]
Felis chaus furax (Jungle cat)[9]
Neophron percnopterus (Egyptian Vulture)[10]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acuaria hamulosa <Unverified Name>[11]
Aonchotheca caudinflata <Unverified Name>[11]
Aporina delafondi <Unverified Name>[11]
Aporina nakayamai <Unverified Name>[11]
Ascaridia columbae <Unverified Name>[11]
Ascaridia galli[11]
Austrobilharzia penneri <Unverified Name>[11]
Baruscapillaria obsignata <Unverified Name>[11]
Brachylaima columbae <Unverified Name>[11]
Brachylaima degiustii <Unverified Name>[11]
Brachylaima fuscatus[11]
Brachylaima mazantii <Unverified Name>[11]
Brachylaima mesostoma <Unverified Name>[11]
Brachylaima nicolli <Unverified Name>[11]
Brachylecithum filum <Unverified Name>[11]
Callopsylla gemina[12]
Capillaria annulata <Unverified Name>[11]
Capillaria bursata <Unverified Name>[11]
Capillaria caudinflata <Unverified Name>[11]
Capillaria columbae <Unverified Name>[11]
Capillaria gallinae <Unverified Name>[11]
Capillaria obsignata <Unverified Name>[11]
Ceratophyllus columbae[12]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[12]
Ceratophyllus hirundinis[12]
Ceratophyllus tribulis[12]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus insularis[12]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[12]
Choanotaenia infundibulum[11]
Coloceras damicorne <Unverified Name>[13]
Coloceras piageti <Unverified Name>[13]
Colpocephalum turbinatum[13]
Columbicola columbae[13]
Cotugnia chauhani <Unverified Name>[11]
Cotugnia intermedia <Unverified Name>[11]
Cotugnia manishae <Unverified Name>[11]
Cotugnia satpuliensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Cotylurus cornutus <Unverified Name>[11]
Davainea jalnaensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Davainea proglottina[11]
Diorchis moghei <Unverified Name>[11]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[11]
Dispharynx spiralis <Unverified Name>[11]
Echidnophaga gallinacea (sticktight flea)[12]
Echinoparyphium paraulum <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinoparyphium recurvatum[11]
Echinoparyphium schulzi <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinostoma revolutum[11]
Eimeria labbeana <Unverified Name>[13]
Eulimdana clava <Unverified Name>[11]
Excisa columbi <Unverified Name>[11]
Hadjelia truncata <Unverified Name>[11]
Haemoproteus columbae <Unverified Name>[13]
Hectopsylla psittaci[12]
Heterakis maculosa <Unverified Name>[11]
Hohorstiella lata[13]
Hymenolepis clausa <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis columbae <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis joyeuxi <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis macracanthos <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis rugosa <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis serrata <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis sphenocephala <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis streptopeliae <Unverified Name>[11]
Hypoderaeum conoideum[11]
Killigrewia delafondi <Unverified Name>[11]
Killigrewia frivola <Unverified Name>[11]
Laterorchites yamaguti <Unverified Name>[11]
Metechinostoma amurensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[12]
Ophryocotylus oraiensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Ornithostrongylus quadriradiatus[11]
Paradicranotaenia anormalis <Unverified Name>[11]
Paradoxopsyllus gussevi[12]
Paratanaisia bragai <Unverified Name>[11]
Pharyngostomum cordatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Philophthalmus columbae <Unverified Name>[11]
Philophthalmus lucipetus[11]
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus[11]
Postharmostomum commutatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[11]
Prosthogonimus pellucidus <Unverified Name>[11]
Pterothominx wavilovoi <Unverified Name>[11]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[12]
Pulluterina karachiensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Raillietina cesticillus[11]
Raillietina echinobothrida <Unverified Name>[11]
Raillietina fragilis <Unverified Name>[11]
Raillietina johri <Unverified Name>[11]
Raillietina kirghizica <Unverified Name>[11]
Raillietina michaelseni <Unverified Name>[11]
Raillietina nagpurensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Raillietina polychalix <Unverified Name>[11]
Raillietina rugosa <Unverified Name>[11]
Raillietina tetragona <Unverified Name>[11]
Raillietina torquata <Unverified Name>[11]
Raillietina weissi <Unverified Name>[13]
Rostelugnia bhaulensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Rostelugnia cuneata <Unverified Name>[11]
Rostelugnia guptai <Unverified Name>[11]
Rostelugnia patialensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Rostelugnia sangrurensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Rostelugnia satpuliensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Skrjabinus petrowi <Unverified Name>[11]
Sobolevicanthus columbae <Unverified Name>[11]
Sobolevicanthus serratus <Unverified Name>[11]
Staphylepis cordobensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Staphylepis rustica <Unverified Name>[11]
Strongyloides avium <Unverified Name>[11]
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)[11]
Taenia crassula <Unverified Name>[11]
Tanaisia bragai[11]
Tetrameres columbicola <Unverified Name>[11]
Tetrameres fissispina <Unverified Name>[11]
Toxoplasma gondii <Unverified Name>[13]
Trichomonas gallinae <Unverified Name>[13]
Tritrichomonas eberthi <Unverified Name>[13]
Tropisurus fissispina <Unverified Name>[11]
Valipora matolaensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Valipora yamaguti <Unverified Name>[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Artis Zoodomestic
Australia Zoo
Bird Park Marlow
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Bramble Park Zoo
Brandywine Zoo
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardendomestic
Bursa Zoo (Bursa Hayvanat Bahcesi)
 domestic
Caldwell Zoodomestic flight
Cheyenne Mtn Zoological Parkdomestic
Chicago Zoological Parkdomestic homing
Christianshede Zoodomestic flight
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Gardendomestic homing
 domestic tumbler
Columbus Zoo and Aquariumdomestic
Cosley Zoo
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dierenpark Emmendomestic fantail
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zoodomestic
Giza Zoological Garden
 domestic
Gladys Porter Zoo
 domestic
 domestic fantail
Hong Kong Zool. & Botanical Gardens
Houston Zoo, Inc.domestic fantail
Indianapolis Zoodomestic
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
 domestic king
Kansas City Zoo
Little Rock Zoological Gardens
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
Mesker Park Zoodomestic jacobin
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Miskolc Zoo/Állatkert és Kultúrparkdomestic
Mokopane Biodiversity Conservation Centre
Moulton Collegedomestic
 livia
Munkholm Zoo (former Dyrenes Gard)
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
National Aviary in Pittsburgh
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
Newark Museum Association
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
North of England Zoological Society
Ocean Park Corporation
Ouwehand Zoodomestic
Papiliorama Swiss Tropical Gardenslivia
Permskii Zoologicheskii Saddomestic
Project Wildlife
 domestic
Prospect Park Zoodomestic
Pueblo Zoo
Ragunan Zoological Park
Riverside Zoo
Roger Williams Park Zoo
Rostock Zoologischer Gartendomestic tumbler
Saint Louis Zoological Parkdomestic
Salzburg Zoo Hellbrunndomestic
Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park
Scovill Zoodomestic homing
Taipei Zoo
Taronga Zoo
Tautphaus Park Zoodomestic
 domestic mookee
 domestic owl
The Philadelphia Zoodomestic archangel
Tiergarten Bernburgdomestic archangel
 domestic bernburg_trumpeter
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbHdomestic
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifaunadomestic
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendaeldomestic ronsenaeur
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
 domestic
Zoo Decin - Pastyrska Stena
Zoo of Acadianadomestic fantail
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
Zoologischer Garten Leipzigdomestic
ZooWorld Zoological Botanical Conserv.

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park; North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Birds Of A Feather on Myxer

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 2005-05-26, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Johnston RF, Johnson SG (1989) Nonrandom mating in feral pigeons. Condor 91:23–29 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 5DETERMINATION OF BODY DENSITY FOR TWELVE BIRD SPECIES, DAVID M. HAMERSHOCK, THOMAS W. SEAMANS, GLEN E. BERNHARDT, WRIGHT LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH (1993) 6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 7Olsen, J., Judge, D., Fuentes, E., Rose, AB and Debus, S. (2010). Diets of Wedge-tailed Eagles (Aquila audax) and Little Eagles (Hieraaetus morphnoides) breeding near Canberra, Australia Journal of Raptor Research 44: 50–61 8Olsen, J., E. Fuentes, DM Bird, AB Rose, and D. Judge. 2008. Dietary shifts based upon prey availability in Peregrine Falcons and Australian Hobbies breeding near Canberra, Australia Journal of Raptor Research 42:125–137 9THE PARASITIC FAUNA AND THE FOOD HABITS OF THE WILD JUNGLE CAT FELIS CHAUS FURAX DE WINTON, 1898 IN IRAQ, Mohammad K. Mohammad, Bull. Iraq nat. Hist. Mus. (2008) 10(2): 65-78 10Conservation status and limiting factors in the endangered population of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in the Canary Islands, José A. Donázar, César J. Palacios, Laura Gangoso, Olga Ceballos, María J. González and Fernando Hiraldo, Biological Conservation 107 (2002) 89–97 11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 12International Flea Database 13Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Invasive Status provided by Global Invasive Species Database Downloaded on 10 May 2011.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2