Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Psittaciformes > Psittacidae > Myiopsitta > Myiopsitta monachus
 

Myiopsitta monachus (Monk Parakeet)

Infraspecies

Myiopsitta monachus calita (Western monk parakeet)
Myiopsitta monachus cotorra (Cotorra monk parakeet)
Myiopsitta monachus luchsi (Bolivian monk parakeet)
Myiopsitta monachus monachus (Monk parakeet)

Invasive Species

Myipositta monachus (monk parakeets) are popular in the pet trade business. Their distinction as the only nest-building parrot has allowed them to adapt to cold climates and urban areas, thus increasing their range when intentionally or unintentionally released. In Argentina, where Myipositta monachus are native, they are reported to cause one billion dollars worth of crop damage annually. They have, as yet, not significantly harmed any other invaded region.
View ISSG Record: Myiopsitta monachus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
18
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
37
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 14.2077
EDGE Score: 2.7218

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  82 grams
Birth Weight [1]  5 grams
Female Maturity [1]  2 years
Male Maturity [1]  2 years
Breeding Habitat [2]  Generalist
Wintering Geography [2]  Non-migrartory
Wintering Habitat [2]  Generalist
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  30 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  10 %
Diet - Plants [3]  30 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  30 %
Forages - Canopy [3]  20 %
Forages - Mid-High [3]  40 %
Forages - Understory [3]  20 %
Forages - Ground [3]  20 %
Clutch Size [4]  5
Clutches / Year [1]  2
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  20,000,000
Incubation [1]  31 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  22 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alta Paraná Atlantic forests Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Araucaria moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Beni savanna Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Andean dry puna Argentina, Bolivia, Chile Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Andean puna Argentina, Bolivia, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cerrado Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Chiquitano dry forests Bolivia, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Dry Chaco Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Espinal Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
High Monte Argentina Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Humid Chaco Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Humid Pampas Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Low Monte Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pantanal Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Paraná flooded savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Patagonian steppe Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Andean Yungas Bolivia, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Uruguayan savanna Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bañados del Este Wetland Reserve 986054 Uruguay  
Cerro Corá National Park II 31326 Paraguay  
Defensores del Chaco National Park II 1792493 Paraguay  
El Palmar National Park II   Entre Rios, Argentina  
Estancia el Trebol   Paraguay      
Estancia Fortín Patria   Paraguay      
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Macizo Acahay Natural Monument III 6320 Paraguay  
Mburucuyá National Park II   Corrientes, Argentina  
Parque Atlantico Mar Chiquita Nature Reserve VI 706059 Cordoba, Argentina  
Parque Nacional Iguazú National Park II 115949 Argentina  
Río Negro National Park II 73775 Paraguay  
Río Pilcomayo National Park II 123699 Formosa, Argentina
Reserva Ecologica de Ñacuñan Ecological Reserve Ia   Argentina  
Reserva Natural Otamendi Strict Nature Reserve Ia   Buenos Aires, Argentina  
San Rafael, Reserva de Recursos Manejados Managed Resource Reserve VI 165840 Paraguay  
Tinfunqué National Park 607935 Paraguay  
Ypacaraí National Park II 38504 Paraguay  
Ypoa National Park 303997 Paraguay  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
Cerrado Brazil No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No

Prey / Diet

Attalea phalerata[5]
Banara arguta[5]
Cecropia pachystachya (Ambay pumpwood)[5]
Copernicia alba (copernicia)[5]
Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)[6]
Ficus luschnathiana[5]
Ficus pertusa[5]
Inga vera (river koko)[5]
Melia azedarach (chinaberry)[6]
Phoenix dactylifera (date palm)[6]
Sapium obovatum[5]
Syagrus romanzoffiana (Queen Palm)[7]
Tabebuia angustata[5]
Tabebuia aurea (Caribbean trumpet-tree)[5]
Triplaris americana[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aburria pipile (Trinidad piping guan)1
Alouatta caraya (black howler monkey)1
Amazona aestiva (Turquoise-fronted Amazon)5
Amazona vinacea (Vinaceous-breasted Amazon)1
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (Hyacinth Macaw)2
Antilophia galeata (Helmeted Manakin)1
Aratinga acuticaudata (Blue-crowned Parakeet)2
Aratinga aurea (Peach-fronted Parakeet)1
Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican fruit-eating bat)1
Artibeus lituratus (great fruit-eating bat)2
Attila spadiceus (Bright-rumped Attila)1
Aulacorhynchus prasinus (Emerald Toucanet)1
Brotogeris chiriri (Yellow-chevroned Parakeet)9
Brotogeris cyanoptera (Cobalt-winged Parakeet)1
Brotogeris jugularis (Orange-chinned Parakeet)2
Brotogeris tirica (Plain Parakeet)1
Callithrix penicillata (black-pencilled marmoset)1
Caluromys lanatus (Brown-eared Woolly Opossum)2
Catharus aurantiirostris (Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush)1
Cebus albifrons (white-fronted capuchin)1
Chlorophanes spiza (Green Honeycreeper)1
Chlorophonia cyanea (Blue-naped Chlorophonia)1
Cyanerpes cyaneus (Red-legged Honeycreeper)1
Dacnis cayana (Blue Dacnis)1
Dacnis lineata (Black-faced Dacnis)1
Dermanura tolteca (Toltec fruit-eating bat)1
Didelphis albiventris (White-eared Opossum)1
Didelphis aurita (Big-eared Opossum)1
Dryocopus lineatus (Lineated Woodpecker)1
Elaenia flavogaster (Yellow-bellied Elaenia)1
Elaenia frantzii (Mountain Elaenia)1
Euphonia chlorotica (Purple-throated Euphonia)1
Euphonia laniirostris (Thick-billed Euphonia)1
Euphonia xanthogaster (Orange-bellied Euphonia)1
Forpus xanthopterygius (Blue-winged Parrotlet)1
Icterus galbula (Northern Oriole)1
Icterus gularis (Altamira Oriole)1
Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin)1
Loxigilla portoricensis (Puerto Rican Bullfinch)1
Megarynchus pitangua (Boat-billed Flycatcher)1
Mionectes oleagineus (Ochre-bellied Flycatcher)1
Momotus momota (Blue-crowned Motmot)1
Monodelphis sorex (Southern Red-sided Opossum)1
Myiarchus tuberculifer (Dusky-capped Flycatcher)1
Myiodynastes luteiventris (Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher)1
Myiopagis gaimardii (Forest Elaenia)1
Myiozetetes similis (Social Flycatcher)1
Nandayus nenday (Nanday Parakeet)6
Nesospingus speculiferus (Puerto Rican Tanager)1
Patagioenas plumbea (Plumbeous Pigeon)1
Penelope ochrogaster (Chestnut-bellied Guan)1
Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak)1
Pipra chloromeros (Round-tailed Manakin)1
Pipra fasciicauda (Band-tailed Manakin)1
Pitangus sulphuratus (Great Kiskadee)1
Platyrrhinus lineatus (white-lined broad-nosed bat)1
Primolius auricollis (Yellow-collared Macaw)1
Psarocolius decumanus (Crested Oropendola)1
Psilorhinus morio (Brown Jay)1
Psophia leucoptera (Pale-winged Trumpeter)1
Pteroglossus torquatus (Collared Aracari)1
Pyrrhura molinae (Green-cheeked Parakeet)1
Pyrrhura picta (Painted Parakeet)1
Ramphastos sulfuratus (Keel-billed Toucan)1
Ramphocelus carbo (Silver-beaked Tanager)1
Saimiri sciureus (South American squirrel monkey)1
Saltator maximus (Buff-throated Saltator)1
Sapajus apella (brown capuchin)2
Spindalis portoricensis (Puerto Rican Spindalis)1
Sturnira lilium (little yellow-shouldered bat)1
Tangara cayana (Burnished-buff Tanager)1
Tangara chilensis (Paradise Tanager)1
Tangara mexicana (Turquoise Tanager)1
Thraupis episcopus (Blue-grey Tanager)1
Thraupis sayaca (Sayaca Tanager)1
Tityra semifasciata (Masked Tityra)1
Trogon collaris (Collared Trogon)1
Trogon melanurus (Black-tailed Trogon)1
Turdus albicollis (White-necked Thrush)1
Turdus grayi (Clay-colored Thrush)1
Turdus hauxwelli (Hauxwell's Thrush)1
Turdus ignobilis (Black-billed Thrush)1
Turdus leucomelas (Pale-breasted Thrush)1
Tyrannus dominicensis (Grey Kingbird)2
Tyrannus savana (Fork-tailed Flycatcher)1
Vireo altiloquus (Black-whiskered Vireo)1
Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)2

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)monachus
Alabama Gulf Coast Zoo
Aquarium & Rainforest at Moody Gardens
Artis Zoo
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Audubon Zoo
Binghamton Zoo at Ross Park
Blackpool Zoo
Bronx Children's Zoo
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Park
Colchester Zoo
Dickerson Park Zoo
Dierenpark Amersfoort
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
Ecodrome CVmonachus
Exmoor Zoological Park
Guadalajara Zoo
Hansenberg Organia
Harewood Bird Garden at Leeds
Helsinki Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
John Ball Zoological Garden
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Kazan Zoological & Botanical Garden
Knuthenborg Safariparkmonachus
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoo
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantes
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Moscow Zoological Park
Moulton College
Mundomar
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.
Nashville Zoo at Grassmere
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Odense Zoologiske Have
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opole
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Zoologique d'Amiens
Parc Zoologique De Cleres (MNHN)
 monachus
Parc Zoologique de Lille
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Queens Zoo
Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safari
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Roma
Silesian Zoological Garden
South Lakes Wild Animal Park
Szeged Zoo
The Parrot Zoo
Topeka Zoological Park
Touroparc
Tracy Aviary
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Wilhelma Zoo
Wingham Wildlife Park
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Zoo and Aqua-Terrarium Ltd. Pécs
Zoo de Pont-Scorff
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg
ZooWorld Zoological Botanical Conserv.

Range Map

Caribbean; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Eberhard, JR 1998. Breeding biology of the Monk Parakeet Wilson Bull 110:463–473
5PLANT FOOD RESOURCES AND THE DIET OF A PARROT COMMUNITY IN A GALLERY FOREST OF THE SOUTHERN PANTANAL (BRAZIL), RAGUSA-NETTO, J. and FECCHIO, A., Braz. J. Biol., 66(4): 1021-1032, 2006
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7The parakeet Brotogeris tirica feeds on and disperses the fruits of the palm Syagrus romanzoffiana in Southeastern Brazil, Sazima, I., Biota Neotropica, Vol. 8 (number 1): 2008; p. 231-234.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access