Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Strigiformes > Strigidae > Bubo > Bubo virginianus
 

Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), also known as the tiger owl (originally derived from early naturalists' description as the "winged tiger" or "tiger of the air") or the hoot owl, is a large owl native to the Americas. It is an extremely adaptable bird with a vast range and is the most widely distributed true owl in the Americas.
View Wikipedia Record: Bubo virginianus

Infraspecies

Bubo virginianus algistus (Synonym of Bubo virginianus lagophonus, Northwestern horned owl)
Bubo virginianus elachistus (Dwarf horned owl)
Bubo virginianus heterocnemis (Newfoundland horned owl)
Bubo virginianus lagophonus (Northwestern horned owl)
Bubo virginianus mayensis (Yucatan horned owl)
Bubo virginianus mesembrinus (Oaxaca horned owl)
Bubo virginianus nacurutu (Venezuelan great horned owl)
Bubo virginianus nigrescens (Ecuadorian great horned owl)
Bubo virginianus pacificus (Coast horned owl)
Bubo virginianus pallescens (Virginia great horned owl) (Attributes)
Bubo virginianus saturatus (St Michael horned owl)
Bubo virginianus subarcticus
Bubo virginianus virginianus (Northern great horned owl) (Attributes)

Invasive Species

Bubo virginianus was intentionally introduced to Hiva Oa in French Polynesia to combat rats. This bird of prey has affected all native birds on the island.
View ISSG Record: Bubo virginianus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
7
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
25
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.47536
EDGE Score: 2.01161

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  2.92 lbs (1.32 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  35 grams
Female Weight [1]  3.32 lbs (1.51 kg)
Male Weight [1]  2.52 lbs (1.14 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  32 %
Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Male Maturity [2]  2 years
Clutch Size [3]  2
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Incubation [2]  27 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  29 years
Wing Span [4]  4.4 feet (1.34 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Alta Paraná Atlantic forests Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Araucaria moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic Coast restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Atlantic dry forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bahia coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Bahia interior forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Balsas dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Beni savanna Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Bolivian montane dry forests Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bolivian Yungas Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caatinga Brazil Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Campos Rupestres montane savanna Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cauca Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central American montane forests Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Andean puna Argentina, Bolivia, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Andean wet puna Peru, Bolivia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cerrado Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Chiapas Depression dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chilean matorral Chile Neotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chiquitano dry forests Bolivia, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Cordillera Central páramo Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cordillera de Merida páramo Venezuela Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cordillera Oriental montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Dry Chaco Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Cordillera real montane forests Ecuador, Colombia, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Espinal Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Guianan Freshwater swamp forests Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan moist forests Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan savanna Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Humid Chaco Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Humid Pampas Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Llanos Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Marañón dry forests Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Marajó varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mato Grosso seasonal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Motagua Valley thornscrub Guatemala Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Andean páramo Ecuador, Colombia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwestern Andean montane forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanal Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Paraná flooded savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Patía Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pernambuco coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pernambuco interior forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peruvian Yungas Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Santa Marta montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Santa Marta páramo Colombia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Serra do Mar coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Andean Yungas Bolivia, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Atlantic mangroves Brazil Neotropic Mangroves  
Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Amazon moist forests Peru, Brazil, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Talamancan montane forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tehuacán Valley matorral Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Uruguayan savanna Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Venezuelan Andes montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Bañados del Este Wetland Reserve 986054 Uruguay  
Beaver Creek Biosphere Reserve 275028 Arizona, United States  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Bosques Petrificados Monumental Natural National Monument III 151218 Santa Cruz, Argentina  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Cinaruco-Capanaparo National Park II 1664173 Venezuela  
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Defensores del Chaco National Park II 1792493 Paraguay  
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
El Rey National Park II 110298 Salta, Argentina
Estacion Biologica Beni Biosphere Reserve VI 335178 Bolivia  
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Maracá Ecological Reserve Ia 257554 Roraima, Brazil  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park II 4006523 Bolivia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Parque Nacional Torres del Paine National Park II 542393 Magallanes, Chile  
Perito Moreno National Park II 234320 Santa Cruz, Argentina  
Pico Bonito National Park II 138952 Honduras    
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Reserva Nacional Lauca National Park II 349990 Chile  
Reserva Nacional de Fauna Ulla Ulla National Fauna Reserve 559837 Bolivia  
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo Biosphere Reserve 353161 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera San Guillermo Biosphere Reserve 2446343 Argentina  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Pozuelos Biosphere Reserve 988422 Argentina  
Reserva del Noroeste Biosphere Reserve 571807 Peru  
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Río Pilcomayo National Park II 123699 Formosa, Argentina
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Tierra Del Fuego National Park II 172861 Argentina
Tinfunqué National Park 607935 Paraguay  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Cerrado Brazil No
Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests Chile No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Emblem of

Alberta

Prey / Diet

Abrocoma bennettii (Chinchilla-rat)[5]
Abrothrix longipilis (long-haired grass mouse)[5]
Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)[6]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[7]
Artemisia frigida (Fringed sagewort)[8]
Artemisiospiza belli (Sage Sparrow)[9]
Baiomys taylori (northern pygmy mouse)[10]
Blarina brevicauda (Northern Short-tailed Shrew)[11]
Brachylagus idahoensis (Pygmy Rabbit)[12]
Callospermophilus saturatus (Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel)[13]
Chaetodipus hispidus (hispid pocket mouse)[14]
Chaetodipus nelsoni (Nelson's pocket mouse)[15]
Conepatus leuconotus (American Hog-nosed Skunk)[16]
Dipodomys heermanni (Heermann's kangaroo rat)[17]
Dipodomys ingens (giant kangaroo rat)[18]
Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat)[19]
Dipodomys spectabilis (banner-tailed kangaroo rat)[20]
Elanoides forficatus (Swallow-tailed Kite)[21]
Fulica americana (American Coot)[7]
Geomys breviceps (Baird's pocket gopher)[22]
Geomys bursarius (plains pocket gopher)[23]
Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum (cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl)[24]
Glaucomys sabrinus (northern flying squirrel)[25]
Irenomys tarsalis (Chilean climbing mouse)[26]
Lasiurus borealis (red bat)[27]
Lemmiscus curtatus (sagebrush vole)[28]
Lepus californicus (Black-tailed Jackrabbit)[29]
Marmosa elegans (mouse opossum)[5]
Martes americana (American Marten)[30]
Microtus californicus (California vole)[31]
Microtus montanus (montane vole)[32]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[7]
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)[33]
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)[34]
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)[35]
Neotoma fuscipes (dusky-footed woodrat)[36]
Neotoma lepida (desert woodrat)[37]
Neotoma micropus (southern plains woodrat)[38]
Neurotrichus gibbsii (Shrew-mole)[39]
Notiosorex crawfordi (desert shrew)[40]
Oryctolagus cuniculus (European Rabbit)[5]
Perognathus flavescens (plains pocket mouse)[41]
Perognathus flavus (silky pocket mouse)[42]
Peromyscus eva (Eva's desert mouse)[43]
Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse)[7]
Phyllotis darwini (Darwin's leaf-eared mouse)[5]
Rattus rattus (black rat)[5]
Reithrodon auritus (bunny rat)[44]
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)[45]
Sorex vagrans (Vagrant Shrew)[46]
Spalacopus cyanus (Coruro)[47]
Spilogale putorius (Eastern Spotted Skunk)[48]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[49]
Sylvilagus audubonii (Desert Cottontail)[50]
Sylvilagus bachmani (Brush Rabbit)[51]
Sylvilagus nuttallii (Nuttall's cottontail)[52]
Sylvilagus palustris (Marsh Rabbit)[53]
Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat)[54]
Tamias merriami (Merriam's chipmunk)[55]
Thomomys bottae (Botta's pocket gopher)[56]
Thomomys bulbivorus (Camas pocket gopher)[57]
Thomomys talpoides (northern pocket gopher)[58]
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)[7]
Urocitellus canus (Merriam's ground squirrel)[59]
Urocitellus richardsonii (Richardson's ground squirrel)[60]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)4
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)5
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)2
Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)6
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)3
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)6
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)2
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)7
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)9
Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)9
Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)2
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)17
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)3
Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)3
Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk)2
Buteo polyosoma (Variable Hawk)5
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)6
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)3
Canis latrans (Coyote)26
Canis lupus (Wolf)2
Caracara plancus (Southern Crested Caracara)3
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)5
Coluber flagellum (Coachwhip)2
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)2
Crotalus atrox (Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake)7
Crotalus cerberus (viridis)4
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))7
Didelphis marsupialis (Common Opossum)3
Elanus leucurus (White-tailed Kite)3
Falco columbarius (Merlin)3
Falco mexicanus (Prairie Falcon)3
Falco sparverius (American Kestrel)5
Galictis cuja (Lesser Grison)6
Geococcyx californianus (Greater Roadrunner)3
Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle)4
Glaucidium gnoma (Northern Pygmy-Owl)4
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)5
Lanius ludovicianus (Loggerhead Shrike)2
Leopardus guigna (Kodkod)3
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)15
Martes americana (American Marten)5
Megascops asio (Eastern Screech-Owl)2
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)6
Mustela erminea (Ermine)2
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)11
Neovison vison (American Mink)2
Parabuteo unicinctus (Harris's Hawk)6
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)15
Pituophis melanoleucus (Eastern Pine Snake)4
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)5
Puma concolor (Cougar)2
Spilogale putorius (Eastern Spotted Skunk)2
Strix nebulosa (Great Grey Owl)3
Strix occidentalis (Spotted Owl)2
Strix rufipes (Rufous-legged Owl)3
Strix varia (Barred Owl)8
Taxidea taxus (American Badger)9
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)32
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)11
Vulpes macrotis (Kit Fox)6
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)9

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anomiopsyllus montanus[61]
Baruscapillaria falconis <Unverified Name>[62]
Brachylaima mcintoshi <Unverified Name>[62]
Capillaria falconis <Unverified Name>[62]
Capillaria falconis-nisi <Unverified Name>[62]
Capillaria tenuissima <Unverified Name>[62]
Centrorhynchus conspectus[62]
Centrorhynchus kuntzi[62]
Centrorhynchus robustus[62]
Centrorhynchus spinosus[62]
Chandlerella longigutturata <Unverified Name>[62]
Chandleronema longigutturata <Unverified Name>[62]
Cyrnea americanum <Unverified Name>[62]
Echinostoma trivolvis <Unverified Name>[62]
Excisa excisiformis <Unverified Name>[62]
Hectopsylla psittaci[61]
Lemdana wernaarti <Unverified Name>[62]
Microtetrameres bubo <Unverified Name>[62]
Neodiplostomum americanum <Unverified Name>[62]
Neodiplostomum reflexum <Unverified Name>[62]
Orchopeas sexdentatus agilis[61]
Oropsylla idahoensis[61]
Paruterina rauschi <Unverified Name>[62]
Porrocaecum depressum <Unverified Name>[62]
Porrocaecum trichuriforme <Unverified Name>[62]
Raillietina bumi <Unverified Name>[62]
Stomylotrema vicarium <Unverified Name>[62]
Strigea elegans[62]
Strigea falconis[62]
Synhimantus affinis <Unverified Name>[62]
Synhimantus laticeps <Unverified Name>[62]
Trichinella pseudospiralis[62]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Abilene Zoological Gardens
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Alameda Park Zoo
Albuquerque Biological Park
America's Teaching Zoo
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Audubon Aquarium of the Americas
Audubon Zoo
Badoca Safari Park
Barranquilla Zoo
Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary
Binder Park Zoo
Binghamton Zoo at Ross Park
Birmingham Zoo
 virginianus
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
Brevard Zoo
Bronx Children's Zoo
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Brookgreen Gardens
Caldwell Zoo
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
Cameron Park Zoo
Central Florida Zoological Park
Chahinkapa Zoo
Charles Paddock Zoo
Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Park
Chehaw Wild Animal Park
Chicago Zoological Park
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Clyde Peeling's Reptiland
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo
Cosley Zoo
Coyote Point Museum
Dakota Zoo
Dallas Zoo
Dartmoor Zoological Park
David Traylor Zoo of Emporia
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
Dickerson Park Zoo
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
Dudley Zoological Gardenspacificus
Ellen Trout Zoo
Flamingo Park Wildlife Encounternacurutu
Florida Aquarium
Forest Park Zoological Societywapacuthu
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Fresno Chaffee Zoo
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo
Fundacao Zoo-Botan. de Belo Horizonte
Fundacion Zoologica de Cali
Great Plains Zoo
Greenville Zoo
Guadalajara Zoo
Happy Hollow Zoo
Hattiesburg Zoo
Henry Vilas Zoo
Henson Robinson Zoo
Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Hutchinson Zoo
Indianapolis Zoo
International Centre for Birds of Prey
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardensvirginianus
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
John Ball Zoological Garden
John G. Shedd Aquariumvirginianus
Knoxville Zoological Gardens
Lake Superior Zoological Gardens
Lehigh Valley Zoo
Little Rock Zoological Gardens
Living Desert State Park (Carlsbad)
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
Lotherton Bird Garden
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoo
Louisville Zoological Garden
Magnetic Hill Zoo
Mesker Park Zoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Mill Mountain Zoo
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
 nigrescens
Moonridge Animal Park
Museum of Science - Live Animal Center
Natural Encounters, Inc.
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
Niabi Zoo
North Carolina Zoological Park
Northwest Trek Wildlife Park
NY State Zoo at Thompson Park
Oakland Zoo
Oatland Island Wildlife Center
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Olmense Zoo
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Orange County Zoo
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Park
 virginianus
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuary
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Parque Ornitologico de Lourosa
 nacurutu
Parque Zoologico Benito Juarez
Parque Zoologico Huachipa
Parque Zoologico Jaime Duque - Bogota
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Phoenix Zoo
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Project Wildlife
Prospect Park Zoo
Pueblo Zoo
Roosevelt Park Zoo
Saint Louis Zoological Park
Salisbury Zoological Park
San Diego Wild Animal Parkpacificus
San Diego Zoopacificus
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Santa Ana Zoo
Santa Fe CollegeTeaching Zoo
Scovill Zoo
Seneca Park Zoo
Silver Springs Park
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Southwest Wildlife Conservation Center
Tallahassee Museum of History and
 virginianus
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
Texas Zoo
The Living Desert Zoo and Gardens
The Philadelphia Zoo
The Raptor Foundation
 nacurutu
Toronto Zoovirginianus
Tracy Aviary
 virginianus
Trevor Zoo at Millbrook School
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Turtle Back Zoo
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Center
 wapacuthu
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr
Virginia Living Museum
Virginia Zoological Park
 virginianus
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Washington Park Zoological Gardensalgistus
Western North Carolina Nature Center
Wildlife Safari Inc
Willow Park Zoo
Woodland Park Zoological Gardens
World Owl Trustnacurutu
 virginianus
Zoo de Pont-Scorff
Zoo New England, Stone Zoo
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaianigrescens
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
ZooAmerica (No. American Wildlife Pk.)
Zoologicka zahrada Ostravavirginianus
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding
ZooMontana

Range Map

North America; Patfa Valley dry forests; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

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Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Kemp, AC. 1989. Estimation of Biological Indices for Little-known African Owls Meyburg, B.-U & R. D. Chancellor eds. 1989 Raptors in the Modern World WWGBP: Berlin, London & Paris 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Wing Loading in 15 Species of North American Owls, Duncan, James R.; Johnson, David H.; Nicholls, Thomas H., eds. Biology and conservation of owls of the Northern Hemisphere: 2nd International symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-190. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 553-561 (1997) 5Predation upon small mammals in shrublands and grasslands of southern South America: ecological correlates and presumable consequences, Fabian M. Jaksic, Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 59: 209-221 (1986) 6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 7DIET OF THE GREAT HORNED OWL IN THE CRESTON VALLEY, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1998 - 2005, Linda M. Van Damme, Wildlife Afield 2:2 December 2005, pp. 73-78 8Neotoma cinerea, Felisa A. Smith, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 564, pp. 1-8 (1997) 9SPECIES ASSESSMENT FOR SAGE SPARROW (AMPHISPIZA BELLI) IN WYOMING, PAULA L. HANSLEY AND DR. GARY P. BEAUVAIS, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, September 2004 10Baiomys taylori, Bruce D. Eshelman and Guy N. Cameron, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 285, pp. 1-7 (1987) 11Blarina brevicauda, Sarah B. George, Jerry R. Choate, and Hugh H. Genoways, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 261, pp. 1-9 (1986) 12SPECIES ASSESSMENT FOR PYGMY RABBIT (BRACHYLAGUS IDAHOENSIS) IN WYOMING, DOUGLAS A. KEINATH AND MATTHEW MCGEE, United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management Wyoming State Office Cheyenne, Wyoming (2004) 13Spermophilus saturatus, Stephan C. Trombulak, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 322, pp. 1-4 (1988) 14Chaetodipus hispidus, Deborah D. Paulson, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 320, pp. 1-4 (1988) 15Chaetodipus nelsoni, Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 484, pp. 1-6 (1994) 16Conepatus leuconotus (Carnivora: Mephitidae), JERRY W. DRAGOO AND STEVEN R. SHEFFIELD, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 827:1–8 (2009) 17Dipodomys heermanni, Douglas A. Kelt, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 323, pp. 1-7 (1988) 18Dipodomys ingens, Daniel F. Williams and Kerry S. Kilburn, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 377, pp. 1-7 (1991) 19Dipodomys ordii, Tom E. Garrison and Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 353, pp. 1-10 (1990) 20Dipodomys spectabilis, Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 311, pp. 1-10 (1988) 21Predators of the Swallow-Tailed Kite in Southern Louisiana and Mississippi, Jennifer O. Coulson, Thomas D. Coulson, Sherry A. DeFrancesch, and Thomas W. Sherry, Journal of Raptor Research 42(1):1-12. 2008 22Geomys breviceps, James M. Sulentich, Lawrence R. Williams, and Guy N. Cameron, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 383, pp. 1-4 (1991) 23Geomys bursarius (Rodentia: Geomyidae), MATTHEW B. CONNIOR, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(879):104–117 (2011) 24The Cactus Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl: Taxonomy, Distribution, and Natural History, Jean-Luc E. Cartron, W. Scott Richardson, Glenn A. Proudfoot, USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-43. 2000 25Glaucomys sabrinus, Nancy Wells-Gosling and Lawrence R. Heaney, Mammalian Species No. 229, pp. 1-8 (1984) 26Irenomys tarsalis, Douglas A. Kelt, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 447, pp. 1-3 (1993) 27Lasiurus borealis, Karl A. Shump Jr. and Ann U. Shump, Mammalian Species No. 183, pp. 1-6 (1982) 28Lemmiscus curtatus, Lynn E. Carroll and Hugh H. Genoways, Mammalian Species No. 124, pp. 1-6 (1980) 29Lepus californicus, Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 530, pp. 1-10 (1996) 30Martes americana, Tim W. Clark, Elaine Anderson, Carman Douglas, and Marjorie Strickland, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 289, pp. 1-8 (1987) 31Microtus californicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae), NICHOLE L. CUDWORTH AND JOHN L. KOPROWSKI, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 42(868):230–243 (2010) 32Microtus montanus, Wendy E. Sera and Cathleen N. Early, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 716, pp. 1–10 (2003) 33Microtus pinetorum, Michael J. Smolen, Mammalian Species No. 147, pp. 1-7 (1981) 34Mustela frenata, Steven R. Sheffield and Howard H. Thomas, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 570, pp. 1-9 (1997) 35Neotoma floridana, Robert W. Wiley, Mammalian Species No. 139, pp. 1-7 (1980) 36Neotoma fuscipes, L. N. Carraway and B. J. Verts, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 386, pp. 1-10 (1991) 37Neotoma lepida, B. J. Verts and Leslie N. Carraway, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 699, pp. 1–12 (2002) 38Neotoma micropus, J. K. Braun and M. A. Mares, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 330, pp. 1-9 (1989) 39Neurotrichus gibbsii, L. N. Carraway and B. J. Verts, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 387, pp. 1-7 (1991) 40Notiosorex crawfordi, David M. Armstrong and J. Knox Jones, Jr., MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 17, pp. 1-5 (1972) 41Perognathus flavescens, R. Richard Monk and J. Knox Jone, Jr., MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 525, pp. 1-4 (1996) 42Perognathus flavus, Troy L. Best and Marian P. Skupski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 471, pp. 1-10 (1994) 43Peromyscus eva, Sergio Ticul Álvarez-Castañeda and Patricia Cortés-Calva, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 738, pp. 1–3 (2003) 44Reithrodon auritus, Ulyses F. J. Pardin ̃as and Carlos A. Galliari, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 664, pp. 1–8 (2001) 45Sciurus niger, John L. Koprowski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 479, pp. 1-9 (1994) 46Sorex vagrans, Scott W. Gillihan and Kerry R. Foresman, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 744, pp. 1–5 (2004) 47Spalacopus cyanus, Juan C. Torres-Mura and Luis C. Contreras, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No.594, pp. 1-5 (1998) 48Spilogale putorius, Al Kinlaw, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 511, pp. 1-7 (1995) 49Feeding Ecology and Nesting Success of Forster's Terns on Lake Osakis, Minnesota, Gail Fraser, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1994 50Sylvilagus audubonii, Joseph A. Chapman and Gale R. Willner, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 106, pp. 1-4 (1978) 51Sylvilagus bachmani, Joseph A. Chapman, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 34, pp. 1-4 (1974) 52Sylvilagus nuttallii, Joseph A. Chapman, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 56, pp. 1-3 (1975) 53Sylvilagus palustris, Joseph A. Chapman and Gale R. Willner, Mammalian Species No. 153, pp. 1-3 (1981) 54Tadarida brasiliensis, Kenneth T. Wilkins, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 331, pp. 1-10 (1989) 55Tamias merriami, Troy L. Best and Nancy J. Granai, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 476, pp. 1-9 (1994) 56Thomomys bottae, Cheri A. Jones and Colleen N. Baxter, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 742, pp. 1–14 (2004) 57Thomomys bulbivorus, B. J. Verts and Leslie N. Carraway, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 273, pp. 1-4 (1987) 58Thomomys talpoides, B. J. Verts and Leslie N. Carraway, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 618, pp. 1-11 (1999) 59Urocitellus canus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) F. RUSSELL COLE AND DON E. WILSON, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 834:1–8 (2009) 60Spermophilus richardsonii, Gail R. Michener and James W. Koeppl, Mammalian Species No. 243, pp. 1-8, (1985) 61International Flea Database 62Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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