Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Strigiformes > Strigidae > Strix > Strix nebulosa
 

Strix nebulosa (Great Grey Owl; Great Gray Owl)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The Great Grey Owl or Lapland Owl (Strix nebulosa) is a very large owl, distributed across the Northern Hemisphere. In some areas it is also called the Great Gray Ghost, Phantom of the north, Cinereous Owl, Spectral Owl, Lapland Owl, Spruce Owl, Bearded Owl and Sooty Owl.
View Wikipedia Record: Strix nebulosa

Infraspecies

Strix nebulosa lapponica (Great grey owl)
Strix nebulosa nebulosa (Great grey owl)

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  2.38 lbs (1.08 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  38 grams
Female Weight [1]  2.79 lbs (1.27 kg)
Male Weight [1]  1.96 lbs (890 g)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  42.4 %
Female Maturity [2]  1 year
Male Maturity [2]  1 year
Clutch Size [3]  4
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Incubation [2]  30 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  16 years
Wing Span [4]  4.5 feet (1.37 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Bonanza Creek LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Alaska, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cedar Creek LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV   Minnesota, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Devil's Postpile National Monument V 807 California, United States
Elimyssalon alue 20492 Finland  
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Fathom Five National Marine Park II   Ontario, Canada
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Haapasuo-Syysniemi-Rutajärvi-Kivijärvi 12513 Finland  
Haapaveden lintuvedet ja suot 8935 Finland  
Heinä-Suvanto - Hetejärvi 3025 Finland  
Isomatala-Maasyvänlahti 3783 Finland  
Isosuo - Kivisuo 6400 Finland  
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Joutsenaapa - Kaita-aapa 31592 Finland  
Juortanansalon alue 13433 Finland  
KALDOAIVIN ERÄMAA 868904 Finland  
Kärsämäenjärvet 1065 Finland  
Keurunmäki-Haavikkolehto 1544 Finland  
Kevo 176448 Finland  
KIRVESAAPA 4515 Finland  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Koitajoen alue 18684 Finland  
KOITELAINEN 120928 Finland  
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lapinjärvi-Teerikangas 262 Finland  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
LEMMENJOEN KANSALLISPUISTO 706697 Finland  
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Nukinrahka - Hirvilamminsuo 2128 Finland  
Ojakylänlahti ja Kengänkari 719 Finland  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Oulanka 72624 Finland  
PÖYRISJÄRVEN ERÄMAA 362835 Finland  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
POMOKAIRA 228222 Finland  
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Puulavesi 40886 Finland  
Pyhä-Luosto 35398 Finland  
Räkäsuo 6501 Finland  
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rumala - Kuvaja - Oudonrimmet 11982 Finland  
Saint Croix International Historic Site   Maine, United States
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Säynäjäsuon - Matalasuon alue 2703 Finland  
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Suksenpaistama-Miehinkävaara 14896 Finland  
Talaskankaan alue 12145 Finland  
Teuravuoma-Kivijärvenvuoma 14302 Finland  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
UK-PUISTO-SOMPIO-KEMIHAARA 765461 Finland  
Värriö 30784 Finland  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Adovo-Chugrumski wetland Russia (European) A1, A3, B2
Øvre Pasvik Norway A3, B2
Bystroistokskaya Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Dresvyanskaya Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3
Elimyssalo Finland A3, B2, C6
Ilmensky zapovednik Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3
Iremel'ski mountain Russia (European) A1, A3, B2
Juortanansalo Finland B2, C6
Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes Russia (European) A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2
Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Kivach Nature Reserve Russia (European) A3
Kumikushski wetland Russia (European) A1, A3, A4iii
Lapland Biosphere Reserve Russia (European) A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju Finland A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Litokaira Finland A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Oulanka-Sukerijärvi Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Pizhemski zakaznik Russia (European) A3
Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira Finland A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet Finland A3, B2, B3, C6
Saariselkä and Koilliskaira Finland A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Sjaunja Sweden A1, A3, B2, C1, C6
Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Talaskangas Finland A3
Teletskoye lake Russia (Central Asian) A3, A4i
Valley of Sysola river Russia (European) A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2
Värriö-Tuntsa Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik Russia (Central Asian) A3
Verkhnevisherski mountain Russia (European) A3, B2, B3
Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes Russia (European) A1, A3
Visimsky zapovednik and vicinity Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3
Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Yamantau mountain Russia (European) A1, A3, B2
Yugyd Va Russia (European) A1, A3, B1i, B2
Yuzhskoe lake-land Russia (European) A3
Zaikovo forest Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3
Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'" Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Emblem of

Manitoba

Prey / Diet

Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)[5]
Clethrionomys rutilus (northern red-backed vole)[5]
Glaucomys sabrinus (northern flying squirrel)[5]
Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare)[5]
Sorex cinereus (masked shrew)[6]
Sorex vagrans (Vagrant Shrew)[7]
Thomomys talpoides (northern pocket gopher)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)4
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)1
Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)2
Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)2
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)1
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)1
Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)1
Blarina brevicauda (Northern Short-tailed Shrew)1
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)3
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)1
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)1
Canis latrans (Coyote)2
Canis lupus (Wolf)3
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)1
Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)1
Glaucidium gnoma (Northern Pygmy-Owl)1
Gulo gulo (Wolverine)1
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)1
Lithobates pipiens (Northern Leopard Frog)1
Lynx canadensis (lynx)2
Lynx lynx (Eurasian Lynx)1
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)1
Martes americana (American Marten)3
Martes zibellina (Sable)1
Mustela erminea (Ermine)1
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)2
Mustela nivalis (Least Weasel)2
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)1
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)1
Strix occidentalis (Spotted Owl)1
Strix varia (Barred Owl)2
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)2
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)2
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)3

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Cotylurus cornutus <Unverified Name>[9]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Banham Zoo Ltd.lapponica
Beale Parklapponica
Bird Park Marlow
Blackbrook Zoological Park
 lapponica
Blackpool Zoo
 lapponica
Burger's Zoolapponica
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
Camperdown Wildlife Centrelapponica
Chessington World of Adventures, Ltd.
 lapponica
Colchester Zoo
 lapponica
Cologne Zoo
Copenhagen Zoo
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardenslapponica
Dierenpark 'De Vleut' (Zoo Best)
Dierenpark Emmen
 lapponica
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
 lapponica
Drusillas Zoo Park
 lapponica
Dudley Zoological Gardens
 lapponica
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zoo
 lapponica
Exmoor Zoological Parklapponica
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zoolapponica
Galloway Wildlife Conservation Parklapponica
Grand Parc Du Puy Du Fou
Helsinki Zoo
 lapponica
International Centre for Birds of Prey
 lapponica
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
 lapponica
Kittenberger Zoo
Leningrad Zoo - St. Petersburg
 lapponica
Linton Zoological Gardenslapponica
Marwell Wildlifelapponica
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunnlapponica
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantes
 lapponica
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodzlapponica
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny, Plock
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Moscow Zoological Park
Mulhouse Zoolapponica
National SEA LIFE Centre
Niedersächsische Landesforsten
 lapponica
Nordens Arklapponica
North of England Zoological Societylapponica
NY State Zoo at Thompson Park
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opole
 lapponica
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniulapponica
Olmense Zoo
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
 lapponica
Ouwehand Zoo
 lapponica
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuary
Parc Animalier de Sainte Croix
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Paradisio S.A.
 lapponica
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parc Zoologique De Cleres (MNHN)lapponica
Parc Zoologique de Lille
 lapponica
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowielapponica
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutovlapponica
Ranua Wildlife Parklapponica
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
 lapponica
Rotterdam Zoo
 lapponica
Skansen Foundation, Zool. Dept.lapponica
Stichting Nederlands Opvang Papegaaien
Tallinn Zoolapponica
The Hawk Conservancy
The Raptor Foundation
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tiergarten Heidelberg
Trotter's World of Animals
Twycross Zoo
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
 lapponica
Welsh Mountain Zoo
 lapponica
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munster
Wilhelma Zoo
Woodland Park Zoological Gardens
World Owl Trustlapponica
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
 lapponica
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo de La Fleche
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternariolapponica
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo Duisburg AG
 lapponica
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
 lapponica
Zoo of Antwerp
 lapponica
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Parc de Beauvallapponica
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaialapponica
Zoo Zürichlapponica
Zoological Garden Prague
 lapponica
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava
 lapponica
Zoologischer Garten Berlin AG
Zoologischer Garten Leipziglapponica
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg
Zoologischer Garten Saarbruecken
 lapponica
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertal

Range Map

Link to Map
North America;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 28-Sep-2005, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Bull, EL, and JR Duncan. 1993. Great Gray Owl, Strix nebulosa. In A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The Birds of North America. Number 41. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC, USA. 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game 5Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection 6Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service 7Sorex vagrans, Scott W. Gillihan and Kerry R. Foresman, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 744, pp. 1–5 (2004) 8Thomomys talpoides, B. J. Verts and Leslie N. Carraway, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 618, pp. 1-11 (1999) 9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 10International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011