Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Strigiformes > Strigidae > Athene > Athene cunicularia
 

Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)

Synonyms: Speotyto cunicularia
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) is a small, long-legged owl found throughout open landscapes of North and South America. Burrowing owls can be found in grasslands, rangelands, agricultural areas, deserts, or any other open dry area with low vegetation. They nest and roost in burrows, such as those excavated by prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). Unlike most owls, Burrowing Owls are often active during the day, although they tend to avoid the midday heat.
View Wikipedia Record: Athene cunicularia

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
27
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
43
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 20.9734
EDGE Score: 3.08983

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  155 grams
Birth Weight [2]  9 grams
Female Maturity [2]  1 year
Male Maturity [2]  1 year
Clutch Size [3]  8
Clutches / Year [2]  2
Incubation [2]  28 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  11 years
Wing Span [4]  24 inches (.6 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alta Paraná Atlantic forests Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Araucaria moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atacama desert Chile Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahia interior forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Balsas dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Beni savanna Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Bolivian montane dry forests Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bolivian Yungas Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caatinga Brazil Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Campos Rupestres montane savanna Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central American montane forests Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Andean dry puna Argentina, Bolivia, Chile Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Andean puna Argentina, Bolivia, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Andean wet puna Peru, Bolivia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cerrado Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Chiapas Depression dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chilean matorral Chile Neotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chiquitano dry forests Bolivia, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cordillera La Costa montane forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Dry Chaco Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ecuadorian dry forests Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Espinal Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Guayaquil flooded grasslands Ecuador Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Guianan Highlands moist forests Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana, Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan savanna Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
High Monte Argentina Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Humid Chaco Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Humid Pampas Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Llanos Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Low Monte Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Mato Grosso seasonal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Andean páramo Ecuador, Colombia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pantanal Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Paraná flooded savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Patagonian steppe Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sechura desert Peru Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Serra do Mar coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southern Andean steppe Argentina, Chile Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Andean Yungas Bolivia, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tehuacán Valley matorral Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Tumbes-Piura dry forests Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Uruguayan savanna Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Valdivian temperate forests Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Bañados del Este Wetland Reserve 986054 Uruguay  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Morongo Canyon Preserve Area of Critical Environmental Concern V 3906 California, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Biscayne National Park II 11085 Florida, United States
Bosque Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve V 691895 Paraguay  
Bosques Petrificados Monumental Natural National Monument III 151218 Santa Cruz, Argentina  
Caaguazú National Park II 33073 Paraguay  
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carapá Biological Refuge IV 9071 Paraguay  
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Carrizo Plain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7550 California, United States  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Cerro Corá National Park II 31326 Paraguay  
Chaco Culture National Historical Park V 34277 New Mexico, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Cinaruco-Capanaparo National Park II 1664173 Venezuela  
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Coachella Valley Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 8106 California, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Creighton Ranch Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3275 California, United States  
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Estacion Biologica Beni Biosphere Reserve VI 335178 Bolivia  
Estación Biológica El Frío 57221 Venezuela  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Gray Lodge State Wildlife Area State Wildlife Management Area IV 8471 California, United States
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Gulf Islands National Park National Park Reserve II 8785 British Columbia, Canada
Itabó Biological Reserve IV 34092 Paraguay  
Itatiaia National Park II 69730 Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
Kuri'y National Reserve Natural Monument III 4972 Paraguay  
Laguna Blanca National Park II 19735 Neuquen, Argentina  
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Limoy Biological Reserve IV 33774 Paraguay  
Maracá Ecological Reserve Ia 257554 Roraima, Brazil  
Mbaracayú Biological Refuge IV 4039 Paraguay  
Mesa Verde National Park II 40098 Colorado, United States
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park II 4006523 Bolivia  
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Parque Atlantico Mar Chiquita Nature Reserve VI 706059 Cordoba, Argentina  
Parque Nacional Fray Jorge National Park II 22266 Coquimbo, Chile  
Parque Nacional Henri Pittier National Park 218030 Venezuela  
Parque Nacional Serranía San Luis National Park II 29816 Paraguay  
Paso Bravo National Park 256207 Paraguay  
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva Nacional Lauca National Park II 349990 Chile  
Reserva Nacional de Fauna Ulla Ulla National Fauna Reserve 559837 Bolivia  
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Pozuelos Biosphere Reserve 988422 Argentina  
Reserva del Noroeste Biosphere Reserve 571807 Peru  
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Río Negro National Park II 73775 Paraguay  
Saguaro National Park II 11686 Arizona, United States
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
San Rafael, Reserva de Recursos Manejados Managed Resource Reserve VI 165840 Paraguay  
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Santuario de la Naturaleza Pumalín Sanctuary 713364 Chile
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Serra da Canastra National Park II 491304 Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Tatí Yupí Biological Refuge IV 5052 Paraguay  
Tinfunqué National Park 607935 Paraguay  
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Wupatki National Monument III 36098 Arizona, United States
Ybycu'í National Park II 13915 Paraguay  
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Ypacaraí National Park II 38504 Paraguay  
Ypoa National Park 303997 Paraguay  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Cerrado Brazil No
Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests Chile No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Abrocoma bennettii (Chinchilla-rat)[5]
Abrothrix longipilis (long-haired grass mouse)[5]
Abrothrix olivaceus (Manso grass mouse)[6]
Apote notabilis (coulee cricket)[7]
Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)[5]
Chaetodipus hispidus (hispid pocket mouse)[5]
Ctenomys talarum (Tuco-tuco)[8]
Desmodus rotundus (vampire bat)[9]
Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat)[7]
Geomys bursarius (plains pocket gopher)[10]
Lemmiscus curtatus (sagebrush vole)[7]
Melanoplus sanguinipes (Migratory Grasshopper)[7]
Microcavia australis (southern mountain cavy)[11]
Microtus montanus (montane vole)[7]
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)[5]
Mus musculus (house mouse)[5]
Octodon degus (Degus)[6]
Oryctolagus cuniculus (European Rabbit)[5]
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)[5]
Perognathus parvus (Great Basin pocket mouse)[7]
Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse)[7]
Phalaenoptilus nuttallii (Common Poorwill)[5]
Phyllotis darwini (Darwin's leaf-eared mouse)[6]
Pleurodema thaul (Chile Four-eyed Frog)[5]
Rattus rattus (black rat)[5]
Reithrodon auritus (bunny rat)[12]
Reithrodontomys megalotis (western harvest mouse)[5]
Rhinella arunco[5]
Spea intermontana (Great Basin Spadefoot)[13]
Stenopelmatus fuscus (Jerusalem cricket)[7]
Sylvilagus nuttallii (Nuttall's cottontail)[7]
Thomomys talpoides (northern pocket gopher)[7]
Thylamys elegans (Elegant Fat-tailed Mouse Opossum)[5]
Urocitellus washingtoni (Washington ground squirrel)[5]
Uta stansburiana (Side-blotched Lizard)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)2
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)1
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)1
Arizona elegans (arenicola)1
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)5
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)4
Bothrops neuwiedi (Barba Amarilla, Fer-de-Lance, common lancehead)1
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)9
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)2
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)1
Buteo polyosoma (Variable Hawk)5
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)1
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)1
Canis latrans (Coyote)5
Caracara plancus (Southern Crested Caracara)2
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)1
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)1
Crotalus atrox (Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake)1
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))2
Elanus leucurus (White-tailed Kite)3
Falco sparverius (American Kestrel)2
Galictis cuja (Lesser Grison)3
Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle)3
Glaucidium gnoma (Northern Pygmy-Owl)2
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)1
Lampropeltis gentilis (Scarlet kingsnake)1
Lampropeltis zonata (California Mountain Kingsnake)1
Leopardus guigna (Kodkod)1
Lycalopex fulvipes (Darwin's Fox)1
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)1
Mustela erminea (Ermine)1
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)2
Parabuteo unicinctus (Harris's Hawk)3
Philodryas chamissonis (Chilean Green Racer)2
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)8
Pseudelaphe flavirufa (Yellow-red Rat Snake)1
Pseudoscops clamator (Striped Owl)1
Spilogale putorius (Eastern Spotted Skunk)1
Strix nebulosa (Great Grey Owl)1
Strix rufipes (Rufous-legged Owl)1
Taxidea taxus (American Badger)1
Thamnophis scalaris (Longtail Alpine Garter Snake)1
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)12
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)1
Urocyon littoralis (Island Fox)2
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)1
Vulpes macrotis (Kit Fox)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1
Xerospermophilus spilosoma (spotted ground squirrel)1

Predators

Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)[5]
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aetheca wagneri[14]
Ectinorus galeanus[14]
Foxella ignota ignota[14]
Hamatospiculum insigne <Unverified Name>[15]
Maritrema patulus <Unverified Name>[15]
Megabothris clantoni johnsoni[14]
Meringis shannoni[14]
Microphallus pygmaeus[15]
Neodiplostomum americanum <Unverified Name>[15]
Neopsylla inopina[14]
Oropsylla idahoensis[14]
Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris[14]
Pleochaetis exilis[14]
Polygenis byturus[14]
Polygenis platensis cisandinus[14]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[15]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[14]
Rhadinopsylla fraterna[14]
Subulura forcipata <Unverified Name>[15]
Tanaisia precaria <Unverified Name>[15]
Thrassis pandorae pandorae[14]
Zonorchis mazzai <Unverified Name>[15]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Abilene Zoological Gardens
Akron Zoological Parkhypugaea
Albuquerque Biological Park
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
Assiniboine Park Zoo
 hypugaea
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary
Beale Park
Binghamton Zoo at Ross Park
Bird Park Marlow
Birdland Park & Gardens
Boonshoft Museum of Discovery
 hypugaea
Brandywine Zoo
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Burger's Zoo
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
 hypugaea
Charles Paddock Zoo
 hypugaea
Copenhagen Zoo
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens
Coyote Point Museum
Curraghs Wildlife Park
Dallas World Aquarium
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dierenpark de Oliemeulen (Zoo Tilburg)
Dierenpark Wissel
Dudley Zoological Gardens
El Paso Zoo
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Fresno Chaffee Zoo
Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park
 floridana
Hutchinson Zoo
International Centre for Birds of Prey
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Jesperhus Blomsterpark
John Ball Zoological Garden
Lake Superior Zoological Gardens
Lee Richardson Zoo
Living Desert State Park (Carlsbad)
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquariumhypugaea
Miller Park Zoo
Montecasino Bird Gardens
National SEA LIFE Centre
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opole
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Olmense Zoo
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Parc Merveilleux
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Phoenix Zoo
Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safari
Rotterdam Zoo
Sacramento Zoo
Saint Louis Zoological Park
Salisbury Zoological Parkhypugaea
San Diego Wild Animal Park
 hypugaea
Silver Springs Park
Skaerup Mini Zoo
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
 hypugaea
The Hawk Conservancy
The Living Desert Zoo and Gardens
The Philadelphia Zoo
The Raptor Foundation
Toronto Zoo
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Center
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Woburn Safari Park
Woodland Park Zoological Gardens
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo Boise
Zoo de Fuengirola (Rain Forest SL)
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
Zoo Zürich
ZooAmerica (No. American Wildlife Pk.)
Zoological Society of London
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen

Range Map

North America;

Audio

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Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Kemp, AC. 1989. Estimation of Biological Indices for Little-known African Owls Meyburg, B.-U & R. D. Chancellor eds. 1989 Raptors in the Modern World WWGBP: Berlin, London & Paris 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Wing Loading in 15 Species of North American Owls, Duncan, James R.; Johnson, David H.; Nicholls, Thomas H., eds. Biology and conservation of owls of the Northern Hemisphere: 2nd International symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-190. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 553-561 (1997) 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Predation upon small mammals in shrublands and grasslands of southern South America: ecological correlates and presumable consequences, Fabian M. Jaksic, Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 59: 209-221 (1986) 7Comparative Diets of Burrowing Owls in Oregon and Washington, Gregory A. Green, Richard E. Fitzner, Robert G. Anthony and Lee E. Rogers, Northwest Science, Vol. 67, No. 2, 1993, pp. 88-93 8Ctenomys talarum, Enrique R. Justo, Luciano J. M. De Santis, and Marta S. Kin, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 730, pp. 1–5 (2003) 9Desmodus rotundus, Arthur M. Greenhall, Gerhard Joermann, and Uwe Schmidt, Mammalian Species No. 202, pp. 1-6 (1983) 10Geomys bursarius (Rodentia: Geomyidae), MATTHEW B. CONNIOR, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(879):104–117 (2011) 11Microcavia australis, Marcelo F. Tognelli, Claudia M. Campos, and Ricardo A. Ojeda, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 648, pp. 1–4 (2001) 12Reithrodon auritus, Ulyses F. J. Pardin ̃as and Carlos A. Galliari, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 664, pp. 1–8 (2001) 13SPECIES ASSESSMENT FOR GREAT BASIN SPADEFOOT TOAD (SPEA INTERMONTANA) IN WYOMING, REBECCA S. BUSECK, DOUGLAS A. KEINATH AND MICHELE GERAUD, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, January 2005 14International Flea Database 15Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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