Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Piciformes > Picidae > Picoides > Picoides pubescens
 

Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)

Synonyms: Dendrocopos pubescens
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) is a species of woodpecker, the smallest in North America.
View Wikipedia Record: Picoides pubescens

Infraspecies

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  26 grams
Birth Weight [1]  2 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [3]  5
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Diet [2]  Omnivore
Incubation [1]  12 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  12 years
Speed [4]  19.01 MPH (8.5 m/s)
Wing Span [4]  12 inches (.308 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Bryce Canyon National Park II 36348 Utah, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chaco Culture National Historical Park V 34277 New Mexico, United States
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Curecanti National Recreation Area V 31032 Colorado, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mesa Verde National Park II 40098 Colorado, United States
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Acer rubrum (red maple)[5]
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[5]
Calosoma scrutator (Fiery searcher)[5]
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)[5]
Cicindela sexguttata (Six-spotted Tiger Beetle)[5]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[5]
Eurosta solidaginis (Goldenrod gall fly)[5]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[5]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[5]
Micrathena gracilis (Spined micrathena)[5]
Misumena vatia (flower spider)[5]
Odontopus calceatus (Sassafras weevil)[5]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[5]
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (American ivy)[5]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[6]
Rabidosa rabida (Rabid wolf spider)[5]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[5]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[5]
Tuberolachnus salignus[5]
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)[5]
Quercus alba (White Oak)[5]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)1
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)2
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)5
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)4
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)6
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)3
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)7
Anisota oslari (Oslar’s oakworm moth)2
Apis mellifera (honey bee)2
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)4
Automeris io (Io moth)2
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)12
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)1
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)1
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)2
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)6
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)2
Castor canadensis (american beaver)4
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)2
Chilocorus bipustulatus1
Chilocorus kuwanae1
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)7
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)8
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)4
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)6
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)2
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)4
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)8
Dumetella carolinensis (Grey Catbird)1
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)4
Erynnis juvenalis (Juvenal's duskywing skipper)2
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)1
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)2
Halysidota tessellaris (Banded Tussock Moth)1
Hippodamia convergens (convergent lady beetle)1
Hyphantria cunea (fall webworm)1
Incisalia henrici (Henry's Elfin)1
Incisalia niphon (Eastern Pine Elfin)1
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)4
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)7
Marmota monax (woodchuck)2
Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)1
Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker)1
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)15
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)8
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)5
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)8
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)6
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)6
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)1
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)1
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)1
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)8
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)3
Paonias myops (small-eyed sphinx)1
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)3
Papilio troilus (spicebush swallowtail)1
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)7
Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager)1
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)6
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)6
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)11
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)10
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)5
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)2
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)2
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)2
Satyrium calanus (Banded hairstreak)1
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)4
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)9
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)1
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)7
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)10
Strix varia (Barred Owl)1
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)6
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)6
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)7
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)2
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)1
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)5
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)12
Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird)1
Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)6
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)1
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)5

Predators

Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[5]

Providers

Shelter 
Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore)[5]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[5]
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)[5]
Quercus alba (White Oak)[5]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ceratophyllus diffinis[7]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[7]
Ceratophyllus niger (Western chicken flea)[7]
Orchopeas howardi howardi[7]
Ornithophaga anomala[7]
Ornithophaga anomala anomala[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Akron Zoological Park
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Minnesota Zoological Garden
National Aviary in Pittsburgh
Toledo Zoological Gardens

Range Map

Link to Map
North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Birds Of A Feather on Myxer

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 27-Dec-2005, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4SCALING OF MUSCLE COMPOSITION, WING MORPHOLOGY, AND INTERMITTENT FLIGHT BEHAVIOR IN WOODPECKERS, BRET W. TOBALSKE, The Auk 113(1):151-177, 1996 5Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 6Characteristics of Some Fruiting Plant Species in Northwest Arkansas, and the Avian Assemblages that Feed on Them, John W. Prather, Kimberly G. Smith, Michael A. Mlodinow, Cecilia M. Riley, Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science,Vol. 54, 2000, pp. 103-108 7International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2