Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Tyrannidae > Contopus > Contopus virens
 

Contopus virens (Eastern Wood-Pewee; Eastern Wood Pewee)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The eastern wood pewee (Contopus virens) is a small tyrant flycatcher from North America. This bird and the western wood pewee (C. sordidulus) were formerly considered to be a single species. The two species are virtually identical in appearance, and can be distinguished most easily by their calls.
View Wikipedia Record: Contopus virens

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
19
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.21521
EDGE Score: 1.65158

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  14 grams
Birth Weight [3]  1.8 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Breeding Habitat [2]  Temperate eastern forests
Wintering Geography [2]  S. American Lowlands
Wintering Habitat [2]  Tropical evergreen forests
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore
Diet - Fruit [4]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  90 %
Forages - Mid-High [4]  33 %
Forages - Understory [4]  33 %
Forages - Ground [4]  33 %
Clutch Size [5]  3
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  6,700,000
Incubation [1]  13 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  7 years
Migration [6]  Intercontinental

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Araya and Paria xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Caqueta moist forests Brazil, Columbia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central American montane forests Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chiapas Depression dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cordillera La Costa montane forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cordillera Oriental montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cordillera real montane forests Ecuador, Colombia, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Panamanian montane forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Guianan Highlands moist forests Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana, Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iquitos varzea Brazil, Peru, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Japurá-Solimoes-Negro moist forests Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Juruá-Purus moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Llanos Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Monte Alegre varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Motagua Valley thornscrub Guatemala Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Napo moist forests Colombia, Venezuela, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Negro-Branco moist forests Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northwestern Andean montane forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pantepuis Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Patía Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Purus varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Purus-Madeira moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rio Negro campinarana Brazil, Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Santa Marta montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Solimões-Japurá moist forest Brazil, Colombia, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Andean Yungas Bolivia, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southwest Amazon moist forests Peru, Brazil, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Talamancan montane forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Ucayali moist forests Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Venezuelan Andes montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Ecuador moist forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve VI 358906 Mexico    
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Biscayne National Park II 11085 Florida, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve VI 921676 Ecuador  
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Columbia River Forest Reserve VI 149053 Belize  
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
Corcovado National Park 115845 Costa Rica  
Cordillera Azul National Park 3367365 Huanuco, Peru  
Cordillera Volcanica Central Forest Reserve VI 150571 Costa Rica  
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
La Selva Biological Station Protective Zone VI 6052 Costa Rica
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Madidi National Park II 3194501 Bolivia  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Manú National Park II 4213523 Cusco, Peru  
Maya Multiple Use Area 1156412 Guatemala  
Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve VI 814711 Chiapas, Mexico  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Parque Nacional Henri Pittier National Park 218030 Venezuela  
Podocarpus National Park II 364096 Ecuador  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Yasuni Biosphere Reserve 4156313 Ecuador  
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Sarstoon Temash National Park II 42082 Belize  
Seaflower Marine Protected Area 15125514 Colombia      
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shipstern Nature Reserve IV 20453 Belize
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Tikal National Park II 142943 Guatemala
Tuabaquey - Limones Ecological Reserve II 4859 Cuba  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Adalia bipunctata (twospotted lady beetle)[7]
Agrilus arcuatus[7]
Agrilus bilineatus[7]
Aleochara bimaculata (Parasitic rove beetle)[7]
Amara impuncticollis (Ground beetle)[7]
Anomoea laticlavia[7]
Aphodius fimetarius[7]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[7]
Attelabus nigripes[7]
Baris striata[7]
Bradycellus atrimedeus[7]
Calamosternus granarius[7]
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)[7]
Canthon lecontei[7]
Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (soldier beetle)[7]
Chrysobothris pusilla[7]
Clivina striatopunctata[7]
Coeliodes acephalus[7]
Conotrachelus nenuphar (Plum weevil)[7]
Conotrachelus seniculus[7]
Corimelaena pulicaria (Negro bug)[7]
Cryptocephalus guttulatus[7]
Cryptorhynchus lapathi[7]
Drasterius dorsalis[7]
Euphoria inda[7]
Goes debilis[7]
Hyperaspis gemina[7]
Hyperaspis undulata[7]
Ips fasciatus[7]
Ips grandicollis (eastern fivespined ips)[7]
Laemosaccus plagiatus[7]
Lucilia caesar (Greenbottle Blow Fly)[7]
Odontota dorsalis[7]
Onthophagus pennsylvanicus[7]
Oscarinus rusicola[7]
Philonthus longicornis[7]
Phytonomus punctatus[7]
Piazurus oculatus[7]
Platypus flavicornis[7]
Psyllobora vigintimaculata[7]
Scolytus quadrispinosus (hickory bark beetle)[7]
Sinea diadema (spined assassin bug)[7]
Sitona hispidulus (clover-root weevil)[7]
Sitophilus oryzae (Rice weevil)[7]
Sphenophorus blatchleyi[7]
Stenolophus fuliginosus[7]
Strangalia luteicornis[7]
Systena frontalis[7]
Tomicus avulsus[7]
Tomicus calligraphus[7]
Tomicus pini[7]
Toxicodendron pubescens (poison oak)[7]
Typocerus velutinus[7]

Predators

Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)[7]

Range Map

North America; Patfa Valley dry forests; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by eNature via Myxer Author: Lang Elliot

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2