Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Alaudidae > Alauda > Alauda arvensis
 

Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark; Eurasian Skylark)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Eurasian skylark (Alauda arvensis) is a small passerine bird species. This lark breeds across most of Europe and Asia and in the mountains of north Africa. It is mainly resident in the west of its range, but eastern populations are more migratory, moving further south in winter. Even in the milder west of its range, many birds move to lowlands and the coast in winter.
View Wikipedia Record: Alauda arvensis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
6
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
22
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.45137
EDGE Score: 1.86429

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  38 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [3]  23
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Diet [2]  Omnivore
Incubation [1]  11 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  10 years
Speed [4]  33.78 MPH (15.1 m/s)
Wing Span [4]  14 inches (.35 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra Australia, New Zealand Australasia Tundra    
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Persian desert basins Iran, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chatham Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Helanshan montane conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kuh Rud and Eastern Iran montane woodlands Iran Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe Morocco Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Saharan halophytics Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sulaiman Range alpine meadows Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ANTICHASIA ORI KAI METEORA 178032 Greece  
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Arcipelago delle Egadi - area marina e terrestre 119270 Italy    
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Camargue 546256 France  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Coorong National Park II 121235 South Australia, Australia
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
DEHESAS DE JEREZ 118651 Spain  
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN 110851 Spain  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
GORGES DE LA DORDOGNE 113760 France  
Gorges de la Loire 145350 France  
Grampians National Park II 416373 Victoria, Australia
Great Gobi National Park Ia 13211440 Mongolia  
Haut Val d'Allier 145560 France  
Hevesi-sík 191445 Hungary  
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
KOILADA KAI EKVOLES SPERCHEIOU - MALIAKOS KOLPOS 117491 Greece  
Kamchiyska Mountain 219637 Bulgaria  
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kopetdagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 125705 Turkmenistan  
Kotlenska Mountain 245286 Bulgaria  
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 131864 Greece  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LLANOS DE ALCANTARA Y BROZAS 126519 Spain  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Les Cévennes 227446 France  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Ludogorie 225827 Bulgaria  
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Monti Sicani, Rocca Busambra e Bosco della Ficuzza 144567 Italy  
Mount Aspiring National Park II 473907 South Island, New Zealand
Murgia Alta 311059 Italy  
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
OROS VORAS 196334 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
PERIOCHI THESSALIKOU KAMPOU 236223 Greece  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Pays des Couzes 128132 France  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Picentini 157557 Italy  
Plateau de Valensole 110723 France  
Promontorio del Gargano 173003 Italy    
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau 207644 Bulgaria  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Nevada Biosphere Reserve 424147 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Rila 200269 Bulgaria  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA 131980 Spain  
SIERRA DE LA DEMANDA 125797 Spain  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sredna Gora 244788 Bulgaria  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Tongariro National Park II 196174 North Island, New Zealand
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Trigrad-Mursalitsa 136717 Bulgaria  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tzentralen Balkan 177099 Bulgaria  
Vasilyovska Mountain 112364 Bulgaria  
Vogelschutzgebiet Hellwegbörde 119642 Germany  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Western Balkan 362801 Bulgaria  
Western Strandzha 132984 Bulgaria  
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    
Zapadni Rodopi 178482 Bulgaria  
Östliche Kieler Bucht 184563 Germany  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Deliblatska pescara Serbia B2, B3
Flood-plain of Algashka river Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1iii, B2, B3
Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) Czech Republic B2, B3, C6
Orenburgski Nature Reserve Russia (European) A1, A3, B2
Sara mountain Serbia A1, A3, B2
Stara mountain-Vidlic Serbia B2, B3
Vlasina Serbia B2
Zlatiata Bulgaria B2, B3, C6

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No

Prey / Diet

Apis mellifera (honey bee)[5]
Chenopodium album (lambsquarters goosefoot)[5]
Galeopsis tetrahit (brittle-stem hemp-nettle)[5]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[5]
Rumex oblongifolius (bluntleaf dock)[5]
Stenurella melanura[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)3
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)1
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)1
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)1
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)1
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)2
Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit)1
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)2
Apus apus (Common Swift)3
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)1
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)2
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)2
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)1
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)3
Cassida nebulosa1
Certhia familiaris (Eurasian Treecreeper)1
Chaetocnema concinna1
Chloris chloris (European Greenfinch)2
Coloeus monedula (Western Jackdaw)2
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)2
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)2
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)2
Corvus frugilegus (Rook)1
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)1
Cuculus canorus (Common Cuckoo)1
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)2
Delichon urbicum (Common house-martin and northern house-martin)1
Emberiza citrinella (Yellowhammer)1
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)1
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)2
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)2
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)3
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)2
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)2
Linaria cannabina (Common Linnet)3
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)1
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)1
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)2
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)3
Lullula arborea (Woodlark)1
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)2
Lygus rugulipennis1
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)1
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)1
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)1
Motacilla flava (Western Yellow Wagtail)1
Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher)1
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)1
Nucifraga caryocatactes (Spotted Nutcracker)1
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)1
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)2
Orthotylus flavosparsus1
Parus major (Great Tit)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)3
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)3
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)1
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)3
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)3
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)2
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)2
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)2
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)1
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)1
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)1
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)3
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)1
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)1
Rana temporaria (European frog)1
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)1
Saxicola rubetra (Whinchat)1
Saxicola rubicola (European Stonechat)3
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)1
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)2
Spinus spinus (Eurasian Siskin)1
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian Collared-Dove)1
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)2
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)2
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)2
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)2
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)2
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)1
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)1
Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)2
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)1
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)1
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)1
Turdus torquatus (Ring Ouzel)2
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)2
Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)1
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)1
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)1

Predators

Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)[5]
Circus pygargus (Montagu's Harrier)[6]
Falco columbarius (Merlin)[5]
Falco subbuteo (Northern Hobby)[5]
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anonchotaenia bobica <Unverified Name>[7]
Anonchotaenia globata <Unverified Name>[7]
Baruscapillaria longevaginata <Unverified Name>[7]
Baruscapillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[7]
Biuterina passerina <Unverified Name>[7]
Brachylecithum alaudae <Unverified Name>[7]
Ceratophyllus borealis[8]
Ceratophyllus frigoris[8]
Ceratophyllus fringillae[8]
Ceratophyllus garei[8]
Citellophilus altaicus[8]
Citellophilus transcaucasicus[8]
Conspicuum popovi <Unverified Name>[7]
Diplotriaena henryi <Unverified Name>[7]
Diplotriaena tricuspis <Unverified Name>[7]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[7]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[7]
Frontopsylla frontalis alatau[8]
Hymenolepis stylosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Leucochloridium macrostoma <Unverified Name>[7]
Linstowiella viviparae <Unverified Name>[7]
Lyperosomum alaudae <Unverified Name>[7]
Lyperosomum collurionis <Unverified Name>[7]
Lyperosomum dujardini <Unverified Name>[7]
Lyperosomum rossicum <Unverified Name>[7]
Mediorhynchus micracanthus[7]
Mediorhynchus papillosus[7]
Mediorhynchus tenuis[7]
Menacanthus alaudae <Unverified Name>[9]
Mesocestoides alaudae <Unverified Name>[7]
Microtetrameres inermis <Unverified Name>[7]
Microtetrameres minima <Unverified Name>[7]
Plagiorchis elegans[7]
Plagiorchis maculosus <Unverified Name>[7]
Porrocaecum ensicaudatum[7]
Skrjabinus lanceatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Skrjabinus popovi <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Denver Zoological Gardens
Inokashira Park Zoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Rotterdam Zoo
The Philadelphia Zoo
Zoo Dresden GmbH

Range Map

North America; Oceania;

Audio

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Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 5Ecology of Commanster 6Comparative breeding biology of Hen Harrier and Montagu’s Harrier: an 8-year study in north-eastern France, A. MILLON, J.-L. BOURRIOUX, C. RIOLS & V. BRETAGNOLLE, Ibis (2002), 144, 94–105 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 8International Flea Database 9Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
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