Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Motacillidae > Anthus > Anthus spinoletta
 

Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit)

Wikipedia Abstract

The water pipit (Anthus spinoletta) is a small passerine bird which breeds in the mountains of southern Europe and southern temperate Asia across to China. It is a short-distance migrant moving to wet open lowlands such as marshes and flooded fields in winter. Some birds migrate north to Britain for winter, taking advantage of the warm oceanic climate. Formerly included in the water pipit were the subspecies now separated as rock pipit and buff-bellied pipit. The former is more closely related to the water pipit than the latter, as indicated by external and molecular characteristics.
View Wikipedia Record: Anthus spinoletta

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
17
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.80533
EDGE Score: 1.56973

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  21 grams
Birth Weight [2]  2.7 grams
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  70 %
Diet - Plants [3]  10 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  10 %
Forages - Understory [3]  20 %
Forages - Ground [3]  80 %
Clutch Size [4]  5
Clutches / Year [5]  2
Incubation [1]  14 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  9 years
Migration [6]  Intracontinental
Wing Span [5]  10 inches (.26 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Al Hajar montane woodlands Oman Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests India, Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle temperate forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qaidam Basin semi-desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Sulaiman Range alpine meadows Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, DELTA LOUROU KAI ARACHTHOU (PETRA, MYTIKAS, EVRYTERI PERIOCHI) 71136 Greece  
ANTICHASIA ORI KAI METEORA 178032 Greece  
Ailaoshan Nature Reserve V 332544 Yunnan, China  
Alpi Marittime 83205 Italy  
Alsó-Tisza-völgy 88306 Hungary  
Alte Valli Stura e Maira 103806 Italy  
Appennino Lucano, Valle Agri, Monte Sirino, Monte Raparo 90310 Italy  
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve V 462837 Yunnan, China  
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Brenta 73487 Italy  
COTIELLA - SIERRA FERRERA 62948 Spain  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU KAI EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PET 109185 Greece  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - ALYKI KITROUS 73260 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI - AXIOUPOLI 83216 Greece  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Dalla Gola del Fiastrone al Monte Vettore 64008 Italy  
Dolomiti Feltrine e Bellunesi 77549 Italy  
Dolomiti del Cadore e del Comelico 173952 Italy  
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS 615652 Greece      
ETHNIKOS DRYMOS PRESPON 65762 Greece  
Eastern Beskid National Park II 68484 Poland  
Estuário do Tejo 110634 Portugal  
Fanjingshan Nature Reserve V 86145 Guizhou, China  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Fujian Wuyishan Nature Reserve V 206754 Fujian, China  
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
KOILADA KAI EKVOLES SPERCHEIOU - MALIAKOS KOLPOS 117491 Greece  
KOILADA TIMIOU PRODROMOU-MENOIKION 73269 Greece  
KORYFES OROUS GRAMMOS 84898 Greece  
KORYFES OROUS VORA 99917 Greece  
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
Kopetdagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 125705 Turkmenistan  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Kugitang Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 77308 Turkmenistan  
LA VANOISE 132493 France  
LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 131864 Greece  
LIMNES KAI LIMNOTHALASSES TIS THRAKIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 72787 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LOS VALLES 79029 Spain  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Les Ecrins 227201 France  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Massiccio del Monte Pollino e Monte Alpi 217581 Italy  
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Montesinho/Nogueira 266900 Portugal  
NOTIO DASIKO SYMPLEGMA EVROU 72341 Greece  
NOTIODYTIKI CHERSONISOS, APOLITHOMENO DASOS LESVOU 71214 Greece    
OREINOS EVROS - KOILADA DEREIOU 120853 Greece  
OROS PARNASSOS 84965 Greece  
OROS TYMFI (GKAMILA) 67747 Greece  
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
PARAPOTAMIO DASOS VOREIOU EVROU KAI ARDA 64079 Greece  
PLATEAU DE MILLEVACHES 163025 France  
POSETS - MALADETA 82205 Spain  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Reserva de Ordesa-Vinamala Biosphere Reserve 127002 Spain  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Ria de Aveiro 127029 Portugal  
Risaie della Lomellina 76457 Italy  
RÍO HUERVA Y LAS PLANAS 74804 Spain  
SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA 131980 Spain  
SIERRA DE GREDOS 213494 Spain  
SIERRA SUBBETICA 79212 Spain  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Syunt-Khasardagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 105306 Turkmenistan  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Vitosha 67608 Bulgaria  
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wolong Nature Reserve V 826140 Sichuan, China  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve Kazakhstan A1, A3
Aktash massif Tajikistan A1, A3
Almaty State Nature Reserve Kazakhstan A1, A3
Arasbaran Protected Area Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A2, A3, B2, B3
Assy Plateau Kazakhstan A1, A3
Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve Uzbekistan A1, A3
Big Almaty Gorge Kazakhstan A1, A3
Big Pamir Afghanistan A1, A3
Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains Tajikistan A1, A3, A4i
Central section of the Kurama Mountain Range Uzbekistan A1, A3
Dashtidjum Tajikistan A1, A3, A4i
Drumkul Lake Tajikistan A1, A3, A4i
Dzhavshangoz Tajikistan A1, A3, A4i
Dzhulukul' depression Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Gissar State Nature Reserve Uzbekistan A1, A3
Ishkashim Tajikistan A1, A3
Iskanderkul lake and mountains Tajikistan A1, A3
Kattasay and Daganasay Reservoirs Tajikistan A1, A3
Kondara Gorge Tajikistan A1, A3
Kulikalon Lakes Tajikistan A1, A3
Kurkure mountain Russia (Central Asian) A3, A4i
Kuznetski Alatau Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Tereklisay section of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve Uzbekistan A1, A3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No

Prey / Diet

Abax pilleri[7]
Cryphoeca silvicola[7]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)3
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)1
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)1
Amaurobius similis (Lace webbed spider)1
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)3
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)3
Apus apus (Common Swift)1
Araneus diadematus (Cross garden spider)1
Araneus quadratus (Spider)1
Argiope bruennichi (Bruennich's garden spider)1
Athene noctua (Little Owl)1
Bufo bufo (Common European toad)2
Certhia brachydactyla (Short-toed Treecreeper)1
Certhia familiaris (Eurasian Treecreeper)2
Ciconia ciconia (White Stork)1
Coloeus monedula (Western Jackdaw)1
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)2
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)2
Delichon urbicum (Northern House Martin)1
Dendrocopos medius (Middle Spotted Woodpecker)1
Emberiza citrinella (Yellowhammer)1
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)2
Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog)1
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)1
Falco subbuteo (Northern Hobby)1
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)2
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)2
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)2
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)1
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)3
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)1
Larinioides cornutus (Furrow Orbweaver)1
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)2
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)2
Lullula arborea (Woodlark)1
Martes martes (European Pine Marten)1
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)1
Milvus milvus (Red Kite)1
Motacilla flava (Western Yellow Wagtail)2
Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher)1
Nucifraga caryocatactes (Spotted Nutcracker)1
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)2
Parus major (Great Tit)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)2
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)2
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)1
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)1
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)2
Pholcus phalangioides (Long-bodied cellar spider)1
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)2
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)1
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)2
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)2
Pisaura mirabilis (Tent Spider)1
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)1
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)1
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)2
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)1
Rana temporaria (European frog)2
Regulus ignicapilla (Common Firecrest)1
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)1
Rhagio lineola (Small Fleck-winged Snipe Fly)1
Rhagio scolopaceus (Downlooker Snipe Fly)1
Rhagio tringarius (Marsh Snipe Fly)1
Saxicola rubetra (Whinchat)1
Saxicola rubicola (European Stonechat)2
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)1
Sorex araneus (Eurasian shrew)1
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)2
Sus scrofa (wild boar)1
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)1
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)1
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)1
Thereva nobilitata (Common Stiletto)1
Trachyzelotes pedestris1
Troglodytes troglodytes (Eurasian Wren)2
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)1
Turdus torquatus (Ring Ouzel)1
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)1
Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)2
Vespa crabro (European hornet)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1
Xysticus cristatus (Wandering Crab Spider)1
Xysticus erraticus1
Zelotes latreillei1

Predators

Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)[8]
Falco columbarius (Merlin)[9]
Falco mexicanus (Prairie Falcon)[8]
Falco sparverius (American Kestrel)[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acuaria cordata <Unverified Name>[10]
Anonchotaenia globata <Unverified Name>[10]
Brachydistomum ventricosum <Unverified Name>[10]
Ceratophyllus borealis[11]
Ceratophyllus enefdeae enefdeae[11]
Ceratophyllus frigoris[11]
Diplotriaena henryi <Unverified Name>[10]
Megabothris turbidus[11]
Microtetrameres inermis <Unverified Name>[10]
Monopylidium borealis <Unverified Name>[10]
Platynosomum macrorchis <Unverified Name>[10]
Zonorchis macrorchis <Unverified Name>[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Monterey Bay Aquarium

Range Map

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5British Trust for Ornithology
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
7Ecology of Commanster
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Raptor Predation on Wintering Shorebirds, G. Page and D. F. Whitacre, The Condor, Vol. 77, No. 1 (Spring, 1975), pp. 73-83
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
11International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access