Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Motacillidae > Anthus > Anthus pratensis
 

Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)

Wikipedia Abstract

The meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis) is a small passerine bird which breeds in much of the northern half of Europe and also northwestern Asia, from southeastern Greenland and Iceland east to just east of the Ural Mountains in Russia, and south to central France and Romania; there is also an isolated population in the Caucasus Mountains. It is migratory over most of its range, wintering in southern Europe, north Africa and southwestern Asia, but is resident in Ireland, Great Britain, and neighbouring areas of western Europe. However, even here, many birds move to the coast or lowlands in winter.
View Wikipedia Record: Anthus pratensis

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
21
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.86039
EDGE Score: 1.76822

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  18 grams
Birth Weight [2]  2.1 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Granivore
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  80 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  20 %
Forages - Mid-High [3]  10 %
Forages - Understory [3]  20 %
Forages - Ground [3]  70 %
Clutch Size [5]  4
Clutches / Year [4]  2
Incubation [4]  14 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  8 years
Migration [6]  Intercontinental
Speed [7]  23.49 MPH (10.5 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  10 inches (.26 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Gobi Lakes Valley desert steppe Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Khangai Mountains alpine meadow Mongolia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
West Saharan montane xeric woodlands Algeria, Niger, Mali, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ALTO GUADIATO 83845 Spain  
Alsó-Tisza-völgy 88306 Hungary  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
CAMPIÑAS DE SEVILLA 88303 Spain  
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caldeirão 116847 Portugal  
Castro Verde 210891 Portugal  
Chausey 203679 France  
Costa Sudoeste 183883 Portugal  
DEHESAS DE JEREZ 118651 Spain  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU KAI EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PET 109185 Greece  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - ALYKI KITROUS 73260 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI - AXIOUPOLI 83216 Greece  
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN 110851 Spain  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Douro Internacional e Vale do Águeda 125502 Portugal  
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS 615652 Greece      
Estuário do Tejo 110634 Portugal  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Hessische Rhön 88827 Germany  
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
KARLA - MAVROVOUNI - KEFALOVRYSO VELESTINOU - NEOCHORI 107331 Greece  
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
KOILADA KAI EKVOLES SPERCHEIOU - MALIAKOS KOLPOS 117491 Greece  
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
Kopetdagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 125705 Turkmenistan  
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Kugitang Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 77308 Turkmenistan  
LA RETUERTA Y SALADAS DE SÁSTAGO 88970 Spain  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 131864 Greece  
LIMNES KAI LIMNOTHALASSES TIS THRAKIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 72787 Greece  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LOS VALLES 79029 Spain  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
MATARRAÑA - AIGUABARREIX 90747 Spain  
MONTES UNIVERSALES - SIERRA DEL TREMEDAL 79316 Spain  
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Montesinho/Nogueira 266900 Portugal  
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Mourão/Moura/Barrancos 209832 Portugal  
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
OREINOS EVROS - KOILADA DEREIOU 120853 Greece  
OROS MAVROVOUNI 91743 Greece  
OROS PARNASSOS 84965 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Ostsee östlich Wagrien 97411 Germany  
PLAINES DU MIREBALAIS ET DU NEUVILLOIS 92492 France  
PLATEAU DE MILLEVACHES 163025 France  
POMOKAIRA 228222 Finland  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Risaie della Lomellina 76457 Italy  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
RÍO HUERVA Y LAS PLANAS 74804 Spain  
SIERRA DE ALCUBIERRE 103846 Spain  
SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA 131980 Spain  
SIERRA DE GREDOS 213494 Spain  
SIERRA SUBBETICA 79212 Spain  
SIERRAS DE SANTO DOMINGO Y CABALLERA Y RÍO ONSELLA 88167 Spain  
Saaristomeri 147873 Finland    
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Serra do Gerês 156759 Portugal  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Stora Sjofallet National Park II 314943 Sweden
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Syunt-Khasardagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 105306 Turkmenistan  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
UK-PUISTO-SOMPIO-KEMIHAARA 765461 Finland  
Uudenkaupungin saaristo 140830 Finland  
Vale do Guadiana 189151 Portugal  
Vogelschutzgebiet Hellwegbörde 119642 Germany  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Östliche Kieler Bucht 184563 Germany  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Balota Dzikoje Belarus A1, B3
Käsivarsi fjelds Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Kevo Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Lapland Biosphere Reserve Russia (European) A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires Finland A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju Finland A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Litokaira Finland A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Pallas and Ylläs fjelds Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area Finland B2, B3, C7
Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira Finland A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Saariselkä and Koilliskaira Finland A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Prey / Diet

Abax pilleri[8]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[8]
Cryphoeca silvicola[8]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)3
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)1
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)2
Amaurobius similis (Lace webbed spider)1
Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit)3
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)4
Apus apus (Common Swift)2
Apus melba (Alpine swift)1
Araneus diadematus (Cross garden spider)1
Araneus quadratus (Spider)1
Argiope bruennichi (Bruennich's garden spider)1
Athene noctua (Little Owl)1
Bufo bufo (Common European toad)2
Certhia brachydactyla (Short-toed Treecreeper)1
Certhia familiaris (Eurasian Treecreeper)2
Ciconia ciconia (White Stork)1
Coloeus monedula (Western Jackdaw)1
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)3
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)2
Delichon urbicum (Common house-martin and northern house-martin)1
Dendrocopos medius (Middle Spotted Woodpecker)1
Emberiza citrinella (Yellowhammer)1
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)2
Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog)1
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)2
Falco subbuteo (Northern Hobby)1
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)2
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)2
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)2
Haplodrassus dalmatensis1
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)1
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)4
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)1
Larinioides cornutus (Furrow Orbweaver)1
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)3
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)2
Lullula arborea (Woodlark)1
Martes martes (European Pine Marten)1
Merops apiaster (European Bee-eater)1
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)1
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)1
Milvus milvus (Red Kite)1
Motacilla flava (Western Yellow Wagtail)2
Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher)1
Nucifraga caryocatactes (Spotted Nutcracker)2
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)2
Parus major (Great Tit)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)2
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)2
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)1
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)2
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)3
Pholcus phalangioides (Long-bodied cellar spider)1
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)2
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)1
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)2
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)2
Pisaura mirabilis (Tent Spider)1
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)1
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)1
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)2
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)1
Rana temporaria (European frog)2
Regulus ignicapilla (Firecrest)1
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)1
Rhagio lineola (Small Fleck-winged Snipe Fly)1
Rhagio scolopaceus (Downlooker Snipe Fly)1
Rhagio tringarius (Marsh Snipe Fly)1
Saxicola rubetra (Whinchat)1
Saxicola rubicola (European Stonechat)3
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)1
Sorex araneus (Eurasian shrew)1
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)3
Sus scrofa (wild boar)1
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)1
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)1
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)1
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)2
Thereva nobilitata (Common Stiletto)1
Trachyzelotes pedestris1
Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)2
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)1
Turdus torquatus (Ring Ouzel)1
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)1
Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)2
Vespa crabro (European hornet)2
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1
Xysticus cristatus (Wandering Crab Spider)1
Xysticus erraticus1
Zelotes latreillei1

Predators

Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[9]
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)[8]
Falco columbarius (Merlin)[8]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[9]
Martes foina (Beech Marten)[8]
Mustela erminea (Ermine)[8]
Mustela putorius (European Polecat)[8]

Providers

Shelter 
Phleum pratense (common timothy)[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocirrus macrorostratus <Unverified Name>[10]
Anonchotaenia globata <Unverified Name>[10]
Baruscapillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[10]
Ceratophyllus borealis[11]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[11]
Ceratophyllus garei[11]
Frontopsylla frontalis alatau[11]
Leucochloridium macrostoma <Unverified Name>[10]
Mediorhynchus micracanthus[10]
Postharmostomum gallinum <Unverified Name>[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Alpenzoo Innsbruck - Tirol

Range Map

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4British Trust for Ornithology
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8Ecology of Commanster
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
11International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access