Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Pycnonotidae > Pycnonotus > Pycnonotus cafer
 

Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)

Wikipedia Abstract

The red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) is a member of the bulbul family of passerines. It is resident breeder across the Indian subcontinent, including Sri Lanka extending east to Burma and parts of Tibet. It has been introduced in many other parts of the world and has established itself in the wild on several Pacific islands including Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, and Hawaii.
View Wikipedia Record: Pycnonotus cafer

Infraspecies

Invasive Species

Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul) is a noisy, gregarious bird distinguished by a conspicuous crimson patch below the root of the tail. It is aggressive and chases off other bird species and may also help to spread the seeds of other invasive species. It is an agricultural pest, destroying fruit, flowers, beans, tomatoes and peas. It occurs naturally from Pakistan to southwest China and has been introduced to many Pacific Islands, where it has caused serious problems by eating fruit and vegetable crops, as well as nectar, seeds and buds.
View ISSG Record: Pycnonotus cafer

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
8
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
25
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.80393
EDGE Score: 2.05463

Attributes

Clutch Size [1]  2
Speed [2]  31.32 MPH (14 m/s)
Wing Span [2]  10 inches (.26 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests India, Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Ailaoshan Nature Reserve V 332544 Yunnan, China  
Al Wathba Wetland Reserve 1236 Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates      
Bandhavgarh National Park II 89210 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Blue Mountain (Phawngpui) National Park II 13648 Mizoram, India  
Buxa Tiger Reserve Sanctuary IV 23685 West Bengal, India  
Chumbi-Surla Wildlife Sanctuary IV 137833 Pakistan  
Cibodas Biosphere Reserve (Gunung Gede-Pangrango) 142165 Java, Indonesia      
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Desert National Park II 672840 Rajasthan, India  
Gajner Game Reserve   Rajasthan, India  
Gamgul Siahbehi Sanctuary IV 22296 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Indravati Tiger Reserve   Chhattishgarh, India      
Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park   Hawaii, United States
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Keoladeo (Bharatpur) National Park II 7668 Rajasthan, India  
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
Kugti Sanctuary IV 126362 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Lal Suhanra National Park V 17972 Pakistan  
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Naina Devi Sanctuary IV 9627 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
National Park of American Samoa II   American Samoa, United States    
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Pong Lake Sanctuary IV 61391 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Renuka Sanctuary IV 10296 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Sanjay Gandhi National Park II 439343 Maharashtra, India
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
Tal Chhaper Wildlife Sanctuary IV 20318 Rajasthan, India  
Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary IV 51099 Maharashtra, India  
Tundah Sanctuary IV 26333 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Bombax ceiba (red silk cottontree)[3]
Carissa congesta (Conkerberry)[4]
Cucumis maderaspatanus (scarlet-fruited gourd)[3]
Ficus benghalensis (Indian banyan)[5]
Ficus drupacea (brown-woolly fig)[5]
Ficus minahassae (clustertree)[3]
Ficus religiosa (peepul tree)[5]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[5]
Medicago sativa (yellow alfalfa)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres cristatellus (Crested Myna)2
Acridotheres fuscus (Jungle Myna)2
Acridotheres ginginianus (Bank Myna)2
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)5
Acritillas indica (Yellow-browed Bulbul)2
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)2
Anthracoceros coronatus (Malabar Pied Hornbill)3
Axis axis (chital)4
Axis porcinus (hog deer)2
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)3
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)3
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)2
Chloropsis aurifrons (Golden-fronted Leafbird)2
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)2
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)2
Coracina novaehollandiae (Black-faced Cuckooshrike)2
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)4
Corvus splendens (House Crow)2
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)5
Dendrocitta leucogastra (White-bellied Treepie)2
Dendrocitta vagabunda (Rufous Treepie)3
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)3
Dicaeum chrysorrheum (Yellow-vented Flowerpecker)2
Dinopium benghalense (Lesser Goldenback)2
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)2
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)4
Geokichla citrina (Orange-headed Thrush)2
Hoolock hoolock hoolock (hoolock gibbon)3
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)2
Iole propinqua (Grey-eyed Bulbul)2
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)3
Loriculus vernalis (Vernal Hanging Parrot)2
Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)3
Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)2
Macaca silenus (liontail macaque)2
Macroglossus minimus (lesser long-tongued fruit bat)2
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)2
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)2
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)4
Megalaima rubricapillus (Crimson-fronted Barbet)2
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)4
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)4
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)3
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)2
Ocyceros birostris (Indian Grey Hornbill)2
Ocyceros griseus (Malabar Grey Hornbill)3
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)4
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)2
Pastor roseus (Rosy Starling)2
Prionochilus percussus (Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker)2
Psittacula columboides (Blue-winged Parakeet)2
Psittacula cyanocephala (Plum-headed Parakeet)2
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)3
Psittacula longicauda (Long-tailed Parakeet)2
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)5
Pycnonotus aurigaster (Sooty-headed Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus luteolus (White-browed Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)2
Pygathrix nemaeus (Douc langur)2
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)2
Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian rhinoceros)3
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)2
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)2
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)3
Sturnia malabarica (Chestnut-tailed Starling)2
Sus scrofa (wild boar)3
Trachypithecus pileatus (capped leaf monkey)3
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)2
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)2
Treron phoenicopterus (Yellow-footed Green Pigeon)2
Treron pompadora (Pompadour Green Pigeon)2
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)3
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)2

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Choanotaenia pande <Unverified Name>[6]
Davainea nitini <Unverified Name>[6]
Geopetitia aspiculata <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Audubon Zoo
Chicago Zoological Park
Hong Kong Zool. & Botanical Gardens
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Miami Metrozoo
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Sharjah Breeding Centre For Endangered
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen

Distribution

Oceania;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 2Pande, S., A. Padhye, P. Deshpande, A. Ponkshe, P. Pandit, A. Pawashe, S. Pednekar, R. Pandit & P. Deshpande (2013). Avian collision threat assessment at ‘Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau’ in northern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(1): 3504–3515 3Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in Haridwar, India, DINESH BHATT and ANIL KUMAR, Forktail 17 (2001), p. 109-110 4Frugivory and seed dispersal of Carissa spinarum (L.) in a tropical deciduous forest of central India, R. M. MISHRA & PUSHPLATA GUPTA, Tropical Ecology 46(2): 151–156, 2005 5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access