Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Sittidae > Sitta > Sitta carolinensis
 

Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) is a small songbird of the nuthatch family which breeds in old-growth woodland across much of temperate North America. It is a stocky bird, with a large head, short tail, powerful bill and strong feet. The upperparts are pale blue-gray, and the face and underparts are white. It has a black cap and a chestnut lower belly. The nine subspecies differ mainly in the color of the body plumage.
View Wikipedia Record: Sitta carolinensis

Infraspecies

Sitta carolinensis aculeata (White-breasted nuthatch)
Sitta carolinensis alexandrae (White-breasted nuthatch)
Sitta carolinensis carolinensis (White-breasted nuthatch)
Sitta carolinensis lagunae (White-breasted nuthatch)
Sitta carolinensis mexicana (White-breasted nuthatch)
Sitta carolinensis nelsoni (White-breasted nuthatch)
Sitta carolinensis tenuissima (White-breasted nuthatch)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
14
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
33
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 11.5435
EDGE Score: 2.5292

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  21 grams
Birth Weight [2]  2 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [4]  7
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Diet [3]  Omnivore
Incubation [1]  12 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  10 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Balsas dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Bryce Canyon National Park II 36348 Utah, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Colorado National Monument III 20420 Colorado, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Curecanti National Recreation Area V 31032 Colorado, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fraser Biosphere Reserve 23050 Colorado, United States  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mesa Verde National Park II 40098 Colorado, United States
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de la Michilia Biosphere Reserve VI 23405 Durango, Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
San Dimas Biosphere Reserve 17161 California, United States  
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Wupatki National Monument III 36098 Arizona, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[5]
Ampelocissus latifolia (American ivy)[5]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[5]
Argiope aurantia (black-and-yellow argiope)[5]
Calosoma scrutator (Fiery searcher)[5]
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)[5]
Cicindela sexguttata (Six-spotted Tiger Beetle)[5]
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)[5]
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)[5]
Hemaris thysbe (common clear-wing)[5]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[5]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[5]
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)[5]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[5]
Phidippus audax (Daring Jumping Spider)[5]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[5]
Pterostichus melanarius (Common black ground beetle)[5]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[5]
Rabidosa rabida (Rabid wolf spider)[5]
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)[5]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[5]
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)[5]
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[5]
Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine)[5]
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[5]
Quercus alba (White Oak)[5]
Quercus phellos (Willow Oak)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)1
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)4
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)10
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)1
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)5
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)5
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)7
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)11
Anisota oslari (Oslar’s oakworm moth)1
Anobium punctatum (furniture beetle)1
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)2
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)12
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)3
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)7
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)5
Castor canadensis (american beaver)6
Cepaea nemoralis (grovesnail)1
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)4
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)11
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)11
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)8
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)13
Datana integerrima (walnut caterpillar)1
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)2
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)5
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)5
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)8
Ernobius mollis (Pine bark anobiid)1
Erynnis juvenalis (Juvenal's duskywing skipper)2
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)3
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)5
Halysidota tessellaris (Banded Tussock Moth)1
Incisalia niphon (Eastern Pine Elfin)3
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)4
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)10
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)1
Marmota monax (woodchuck)1
Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)1
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)20
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)10
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)5
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)6
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)8
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)10
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)1
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)1
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)9
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)1
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)11
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)10
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)7
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)2
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)9
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)12
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)6
Ptilinus pectinicornis1
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)3
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)3
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)4
Satyrium calanus (Banded hairstreak)1
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)5
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)15
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)1
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)5
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian Collared-Dove)1
Strix varia (Barred Owl)2
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)4
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)6
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)11
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)4
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)3
Thrips atratus1
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)2
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)1
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)14
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)6
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)4
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)3

Predators

Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[5]

Providers

Shelter 
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[5]
Digitaria ischaemum (small crabgrass)[5]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[5]
Platanus mexicana (American sycamore)[5]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[5]
Ulmus americana (American elm)[5]
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)[5]
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[5]
Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine)[5]
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[5]
Quercus alba (White Oak)[5]
Quercus phellos (Willow Oak)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ceratophyllus idius[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Tennessee Aquarium

Range Map

North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by eNature via Myxer Author: Lang Elliot

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 2013-11-04, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 6International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2