Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Icteridae > Agelaius > Agelaius phoeniceus
 

Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) is a passerine bird of the family Icteridae found in most of North and much of Central America. It breeds from Alaska and Newfoundland south to Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico, and Guatemala, with isolated populations in western El Salvador, northwestern Honduras, and northwestern Costa Rica.
View Wikipedia Record: Agelaius phoeniceus

Infraspecies

Agelaius phoeniceus aciculatus (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus arctolegus (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus arthuralleni (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus brevirostris (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus bryanti (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus californicus (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus caurinus (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus fortis (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus grinnelli (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus gubernator (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus littoralis (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus mailliardorum (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus mearnsi (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus megapotamus (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus nelsoni (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus neutralis (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus nevadensis (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus nyaritensis (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus richmondi (Red-winged blackbird)
Agelaius phoeniceus sonoriensis (Red-winged blackbird)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
20
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.77743
EDGE Score: 1.75396

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  57 grams
Birth Weight [2]  3 grams
Female Maturity [2]  1 year
Male Maturity [2]  1 year
Clutch Size [3]  3
Clutches / Year [2]  2
Diet [1]  Omnivore
Incubation [2]  12 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  20 years
Water Biome [1]  Brackish Water

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Balsas dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central American montane forests Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chiapas Depression dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tehuacán Valley matorral Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Dzilam de Bravo Wetland Reserve 149170 Yucatan, Mexico    
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Laguna del Tigre National Park II 718533 Guatemala  
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve VI 814711 Chiapas, Mexico  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[4]
Aedes albopictus (forest day mosquito)[4]
Anax junius (green darner)[4]
Calopteryx maculata (Ebony jewelwing)[4]
Corydalus cornutus (dobsonfly)[4]
Eurosta solidaginis (Goldenrod gall fly)[4]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[4]
Hemaris thysbe (common clear-wing)[4]
Lithobius forficatus (Brown centipede)[4]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[4]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[4]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[4]
Papilio polyxenes (Eastern black swallowtail)[4]
Phanaeus vindex (Dung beetle)[4]
Phidippus audax (Daring Jumping Spider)[4]
Philaenus spumarius (meadow froghopper)[4]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[4]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[4]
Pterostichus melanarius (Common black ground beetle)[4]
Rabidosa rabida (Rabid wolf spider)[4]
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)[4]
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry)[4]
Tenodera aridifolia (Chinese mantid)[4]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[4]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[4]
Zizania aquatica (annual wildrice)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)1
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)1
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)2
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)4
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)6
Ameiurus natalis (Yellow bullhead)3
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)7
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)16
Anguilla rostrata (American eel)4
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)3
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)2
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)4
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)1
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)2
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)5
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)11
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)5
Castor canadensis (american beaver)1
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)1
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)7
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)1
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)11
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)6
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)9
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)11
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)5
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)3
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)12
Etheostoma olmstedi (Tessellated darter)3
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)4
Gambusia holbrooki (Bore-drain fish)2
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)9
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)1
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)1
Hypentelium nigricans (Northern hog sucker)3
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish)3
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)2
Libellula lydia (Common whitetail)1
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)4
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)8
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)12
Marmota monax (woodchuck)1
Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)3
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)13
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)7
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)3
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)1
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)5
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)11
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)11
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden shiner minnow)3
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)5
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)3
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)2
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)5
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)2
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)5
Picromerus bidens (Spined Stink Bug )1
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)10
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)3
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)5
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Strawberry bass)3
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)5
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)6
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)4
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)3
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)4
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)6
Semotilus atromaculatus (Horned dace)3
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)7
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)10
Strix varia (Barred Owl)4
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)6
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)2
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)3
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)5
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)4
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)4
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)14
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)2
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)3
Zicrona caerulea (Blue Shield Bug)1
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)3

Predators

Aedes albopictus (forest day mosquito)[4]
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)[4]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[4]
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)[4]
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)[5]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[4]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[4]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[4]

Providers

Shelter 
Acer rubrum (red maple)[4]
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[4]
Carex stricta (upright sedge)[4]
Phragmites australis (common reed)[4]
Scirpus cyperinus (Woolly Grass Bulrush)[4]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[4]
Zizania aquatica (annual wildrice)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Baruscapillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[6]
Brachylecithum americanum <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplotriaena agelaius <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplotriaena bargusinica <Unverified Name>[6]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[6]
Gigantobilharzia huronensis[6]
Hymenolepis farciminosa <Unverified Name>[6]
Splendidofilaria caperata <Unverified Name>[6]
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Florida Aquarium
Phoenix Zoo
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Tracy Aviary

Range Map

Link to Map
North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Birds Of A Feather on Myxer

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 2007-10-11, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 5Mustela frenata, Steven R. Sheffield and Howard H. Thomas, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 570, pp. 1-9 (1997) 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2