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Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The orchard oriole (Icterus spurius) is the smallest North American species of icterid blackbird. The subspecies of the Caribbean coast of Mexico, I. s. fuertesi, is sometimes considered a separate species, the ochre oriole.
View Wikipedia Record: Icterus spurius

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
18
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.07891
EDGE Score: 1.6251

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  21 grams
Birth Weight [3]  2.2 grams
Female Maturity [2]  1 year
Clutch Size [4]  4
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Diet [1]  Omnivore
Incubation [2]  13 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  11 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Balsas dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central American montane forests Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chiapas Depression dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cordillera Oriental montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Panamanian montane forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Motagua Valley thornscrub Guatemala Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northwestern Andean montane forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Santa Marta montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Talamancan montane forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tehuacán Valley matorral Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Venezuelan Andes montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Agate Fossil Beds National Monument V 4731 Nebraska, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Antietam National Battlefield III 3263 Maryland, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Morongo Canyon Preserve Area of Critical Environmental Concern V 3906 California, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge IV 4842 Georgia, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Chiricahua National Monument V 1421 Arizona, United States
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary IV 122962 Belize
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Columbia River Forest Reserve VI 149053 Belize  
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
Cordillera Volcanica Central Forest Reserve VI 150571 Costa Rica  
Crosswinds Marsh Nature Preserve 1050 Michigan, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Devils Tower National Monument V 1361 Wyoming, United States
Dzilam de Bravo Wetland Reserve 149170 Yucatan, Mexico    
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Effigy Mounds National Monument V 1296 Iowa, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Homestead National Monument of America V 850 Nebraska, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Knife River Indian Villages National Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1756 North Dakota, United States
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
La Selva Biological Station Protective Zone VI 6052 Costa Rica
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Maya Multiple Use Area 1156412 Guatemala  
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Montecristo National Park IV 9237 El Salvador  
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo Biosphere Reserve 353161 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
San Antonio Missions National Historical Park VI 854 Texas, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shipstern Nature Reserve IV 20453 Belize
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tikal National Park II 142943 Guatemala
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Vicksburg National Military Park V 1651 Mississippi, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Ficus cotinifolia[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alouatta palliata (mantled howler monkey)1
Amazona albifrons (White-fronted Parrot)1
Amazona finschi (Lilac-crowned Parrot)1
Amazona ochrocephala (Yellow-crowned Parrot)1
Aratinga canicularis (Orange-fronted Parakeet)1
Aratinga nana (Olive-throated Parakeet)1
Artibeus hirsutus (hairy fruit-eating bat)1
Bassariscus sumichrasti (Cacomistle)1
Brotogeris jugularis (Orange-chinned Parakeet)1
Calocitta formosa (White-throated Magpie-Jay)1
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)1
Caryothraustes poliogaster (Black-faced Grosbeak)1
Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush)1
Cebus capucinus (white-faced capuchin)1
Ctenosaura similis (Black Iguana)1
Cyanerpes cyaneus (Red-legged Honeycreeper)1
Cyanocompsa parellina (Blue Bunting)1
Cyanocorax yncas (Inca Jay)1
Cyanocorax yucatanicus (Yucatan Jay)1
Didelphis marsupialis (Common Opossum)1
Dives dives (Melodious Blackbird)1
Dumetella carolinensis (Grey Catbird)1
Eumomota superciliosa (Turquoise-browed Motmot)1
Euphonia affinis (Scrub Euphonia)1
Euphonia hirundinacea (Yellow-throated Euphonia)1
Euphonia luteicapilla (Yellow-crowned Euphonia)1
Geotrygon montana (Ruddy Quail-Dove)1
Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush)1
Icterus auratus (Orange Oriole)1
Icterus cucullatus (Hooded Oriole)1
Icterus galbula (Northern Oriole)1
Icterus gularis (Altamira Oriole)1
Megarynchus pitangua (Boat-billed Flycatcher)1
Melanerpes aurifrons (Golden-fronted Woodpecker)1
Melanoptila glabrirostris (Black Catbird)1
Mimus gilvus (Tropical Mockingbird)1
Mimus graysoni (Socorro Mockingbird)1
Molothrus aeneus (Bronzed Cowbird)1
Momotus momota (Blue-crowned Motmot)1
Myiarchus nuttingi (Nutting's Flycatcher)1
Myiarchus tyrannulus (Brown-crested Flycatcher)1
Myiozetetes similis (Social Flycatcher)1
Nasua nasua (South American Coati)1
Ortalis vetula (Plain Chachalaca)1
Pachyramphus aglaiae (Rose-throated Becard)1
Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting)1
Patagioenas flavirostris (Red-billed Pigeon)1
Patagioenas nigrirostris (Short-billed Pigeon)1
Penelope purpurascens (Crested Guan)1
Piranga bidentata (Flame-colored Tanager)1
Piranga ludoviciana (Western Tanager)1
Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager)1
Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager)1
Pitangus sulphuratus (Great Kiskadee)1
Psarocolius montezuma (Montezuma Oropendola)1
Psilorhinus morio (Brown Jay)1
Pteroglossus torquatus (Collared Aracari)1
Quiscalus mexicanus (Great-tailed Grackle)1
Ramphastos sulfuratus (Keel-billed Toucan)1
Saltator atriceps (Black-headed Saltator)1
Saltator coerulescens (Greyish Saltator)1
Sciurus deppei (Deppe's squirrel)1
Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler)1
Setophaga tigrina (Cape May Warbler)1
Thraupis abbas (Yellow-winged Tanager)1
Thraupis episcopus (Blue-grey Tanager)1
Tiaris olivaceus (Yellow-faced Grassquit)1
Tityra semifasciata (Masked Tityra)1
Trogon citreolus (Citreoline Trogon)1
Trogon melanocephalus (Black-headed Trogon)1
Turdus grayi (Clay-colored Thrush)1
Tyrannus couchii (Couch's Kingbird)1
Tyrannus dominicensis (Grey Kingbird)1
Tyrannus forficatus (Scissor-tailed Flycatcher)1
Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird)1
Tyrannus verticalis (Western Kingbird)1
Vireo bellii (Bell's Vireo)1
Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)1

Predators

Falco femoralis (Aplomado Falcon)[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
National Aviary in Pittsburgh
Tennessee Aquarium

Range Map

North America;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Birds Of A Feather on Myxer

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 6THE DIET OF THE APLOMADO FALCON (FALCO FEMORALIS) IN EASTERN MEXICO, DEAN P. HECTOR, The Condor 87:336-342
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Crosswinds Marsh, Wayne County, Michigan Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2