Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Icteridae > Quiscalus > Quiscalus quiscula
 

Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The Common Grackle, Quiscalus quiscula, is a large icterid which is found in large numbers through much of North America.
View Wikipedia Record: Quiscalus quiscula

Infraspecies

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  106 grams
Birth Weight [2]  6 grams
Female Weight [1]  92 grams
Male Weight [1]  120 grams
Weight Dimorphism [1]  30.4 %
Clutch Size [4]  4
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Diet [3]  Carnivore
Incubation [2]  14 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  23 years
Migration [3]  Migratory
Wing Span [5]  16 inches (.414 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Biscayne National Park II 11085 Florida, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Curecanti National Recreation Area V 31032 Colorado, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fossil Butte National Monument III 8423 Wyoming, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Greenwater Provincial Park II 11019 Ontario, Canada
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Common Ragweed)[6]
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)[6]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[6]
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)[6]
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)[6]
Lithobius forficatus (Brown centipede)[6]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[6]
Phanaeus vindex (Dung beetle)[6]
Phidippus audax (Daring Jumping Spider)[6]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[6]
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry)[6]
Scaphiopus holbrookii (Eastern Spadefoot)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)2
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)4
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)1
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)2
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)1
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)1
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)1
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)5
Anisota oslari (Oslar’s oakworm moth)1
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)1
Apis mellifera (honey bee)1
Apus apus (Common Swift)1
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)1
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)5
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)1
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)2
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)3
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)1
Castor canadensis (american beaver)3
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)2
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)1
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)5
Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer)1
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)3
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)3
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)4
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)3
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)2
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)2
Erynnis juvenalis (Juvenal's duskywing skipper)1
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)2
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)2
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)1
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)1
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)2
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)1
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)3
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)3
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)4
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)2
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)1
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)2
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)2
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)3
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)5
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)1
Nerodia fasciata (Southern Water Snake)1
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)1
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)1
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)3
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)4
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)2
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)4
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)1
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)3
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)4
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)2
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)2
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)2
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)2
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)1
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)1
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)4
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)3
Strix varia (Barred Owl)1
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)5
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)2
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)3
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)1
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)2
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)1
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)4
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)2
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)2
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)1

Predators

Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[6]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[6]

Providers

Shelter 
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[6]
Carex stricta (upright sedge)[6]
Daucus carota (bird's nest)[6]
Digitaria ischaemum (small crabgrass)[6]
Eupatorium maculatum (Spotted Joe-pye Weed)[6]
Hamamelis virginiana (American witchhazel)[6]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[6]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[6]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[6]
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[6]
Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine)[6]
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[6]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[6]
Typha latifolia (Reedmace)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acuaria quiscali <Unverified Name>[8]
Capillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[8]
Ceratophyllus diffinis[9]
Chandlerella quiscali <Unverified Name>[8]
Choanotaenia musculosa <Unverified Name>[8]
Conspicuum icteridorum[8]
Diplotriaena agelaius <Unverified Name>[8]
Diplotriaena bargusinica <Unverified Name>[8]
Diplotriaena pungens <Unverified Name>[8]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[8]
Echinostoma revolutum[8]
Eufilaria hibleri <Unverified Name>[8]
Filaria obtunsa <Unverified Name>[8]
Hymenolepis farciminosa <Unverified Name>[8]
Leucochloridium macrostoma <Unverified Name>[8]
Mediorhynchus grandis[8]
Ornithocapillaria quiscali <Unverified Name>[8]
Oxyspirura petrowi <Unverified Name>[8]
Philophthalmus megalurus[8]
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus[8]
Porrocaecum ensicaudatum[8]
Splendidofilaria caperata <Unverified Name>[8]
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)[8]
Tetrameres paucispina <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Central Park Zoo
National Aviary in Pittsburgh
Queens Zoo

Range Map

Link to Map
North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Birds Of A Feather on Myxer

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 11-Oct-2007, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Peer, BD, and EK Bollinger. 1997. Common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula). The Birds of North America, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. No. 271. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5DETERMINATION OF BODY DENSITY FOR TWELVE BIRD SPECIES, DAVID M. HAMERSHOCK, THOMAS W. SEAMANS, GLEN E. BERNHARDT, WRIGHT LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH (1993) 6Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 7Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 9International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2