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Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

"Red Cardinal" redirects here. For the plant Erythrina herbacea, see Coral Bean. colspan=2 style="text-align: center; background-color: transparent; text-align:center; border: 1px solid red;" | Northern Cardinal File:Cardinalis cardinalis -Columbus, Ohio, USA-male-8 (1). jpg Male in Ohio, USA File:Northern Cardinal Female-27527. jpg Female lacks the vivid red color Conservation status File:Status iucn3.1 LC.
View Wikipedia Record: Cardinalis cardinalis

Infraspecies

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  43 grams
Birth Weight [1]  4 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [3]  4
Clutches / Year [1]  2
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Incubation [1]  12 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  29 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Antietam National Battlefield III 3263 Maryland, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Beaver Creek Biosphere Reserve 275028 Arizona, United States  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Biscayne National Park II 11085 Florida, United States
Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge IV 4842 Georgia, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Chiricahua National Monument V 1421 Arizona, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
Coronado National Monument National Memorial III 4360 Arizona, United States
Crosswinds Marsh Nature Preserve 1050 Michigan, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Cuxtal Ecological Reserve 26687 Yucatan, Mexico  
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Dzilam de Bravo Wetland Reserve 149170 Yucatan, Mexico    
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Effigy Mounds National Monument V 1296 Iowa, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gamgul Siahbehi Sanctuary IV 22296 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 177278 Hawaii, United States
Hawaiian Islands Biosphere Reserve 245981 Hawaii, United States  
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Laguna del Tigre National Park II 718533 Guatemala  
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Maya Multiple Use Area 1156412 Guatemala  
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo Biosphere Reserve 353161 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saguaro National Park II 11686 Arizona, United States
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shipstern Nature Reserve IV 20453 Belize
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tikal National Park II 142943 Guatemala
Tonto National Monument V 1123 Arizona, United States
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Vicksburg National Military Park V 1651 Mississippi, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Walnut Canyon National Monument V 3386 Arizona, United States
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Emblem of

Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky
North Carolina
Ohio
Virginia
West Virginia

Prey / Diet

Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[4]
Carex stricta (upright sedge)[4]
Chenopodium album (lambsquarters goosefoot)[4]
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)[4]
Digitaria ischaemum (small crabgrass)[4]
Ficus cotinifolia[5]
Fragaria virginiana (Virginia Strawberry)[4]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[4]
Hemaris thysbe (common clear-wing)[4]
Lithobius forficatus (Brown centipede)[4]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[4]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[4]
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (American ivy)[4]
Phytolacca americana (common pokeweed)[4]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[4]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[4]
Pterostichus melanarius (Common black ground beetle)[4]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[4]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[4]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[4]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[4]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[4]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[4]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[4]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[4]
Rosa virginiana (Virginia Rose)[4]
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry)[4]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[4]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)8
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)11
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)2
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)2
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)2
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)3
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)9
Apis mellifera (honey bee)5
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)8
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)2
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)3
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)3
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)3
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)6
Castor canadensis (american beaver)5
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)3
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)11
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)2
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)9
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)7
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)13
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)2
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)8
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)6
Dumetella carolinensis (Grey Catbird)3
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)6
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)2
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)4
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)3
Incisalia henrici (Henry's Elfin)2
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)2
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)6
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)6
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)2
Marmota monax (woodchuck)6
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)21
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)11
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)7
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)17
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)7
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)12
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)15
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)2
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)2
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)14
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)6
Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager)2
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)5
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)2
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)6
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)9
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)3
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)3
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)3
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)3
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)13
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)16
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)7
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian Collared-Dove)2
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)11
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)13
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)12
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)8
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)4
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)4
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)22
Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird)2
Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)2
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)8
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)10
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)6

Predators

Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)[4]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[4]
Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum (cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl)[6]

Providers

Shelter 
Bidens frondosa (Devil's Beggarticks)[4]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[4]
Cephalanthus tetrandra (Buttonbush)[4]
Crataegus viridis (desert hawthorn)[4]
Hamamelis virginiana (American witchhazel)[4]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[4]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[4]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[4]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[4]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[4]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[4]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[4]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[4]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[4]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[4]
Rosa virginiana (Virginia Rose)[4]
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry)[4]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[4]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[7]
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)[4]
Orthoskrjabinia rostellata <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Abilene Zoological Gardensmagnirostris
Amazon World
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Audubon Aquarium of the Americas
Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Burger's Zoo
Buttonwood Park Zoocardinalis
Central Park Zoo
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Cosley Zoo
Dierenpark Emmen
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Minnesota Zoological Garden
North Carolina Zoological Park
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Queens Zoo
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
South Carolina Aquarium
Tennessee Aquarium
The Living Desert Zoo and Gardens
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr
Wilhelma Zoo
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH

Distribution

North America; Oceania; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

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Provided by eNature via Myxer Author: Lang Elliot

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 11-Oct-2007, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 6The Cactus Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl: Taxonomy, Distribution, and Natural History, Jean-Luc E. Cartron, W. Scott Richardson, Glenn A. Proudfoot, USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-43. 2000 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Crosswinds Marsh, Wayne County, Michigan Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2