Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Cardinalidae > Spiza > Spiza americana
 

Spiza americana (Dickcissel)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The dickcissel (Spiza americana) is a small American seed-eating bird in the family Cardinalidae. It is the only member of the genus Spiza, though some sources list another supposedly extinct species (see below). In older works, it is often placed with the American sparrows in the Emberizidae; females especially resemble American sparrows in plumage.
View Wikipedia Record: Spiza americana

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
15
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
34
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 11.6972
EDGE Score: 2.54138

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  33 grams
Birth Weight [3]  2.8 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Breeding Habitat [2]  Temperate grasslands, Agricultural
Wintering Geography [2]  S. American Lowlands
Wintering Habitat [2]  Tropical grasslands, Agricultural
Diet [4]  Granivore
Diet - Seeds [4]  100 %
Forages - Ground [4]  100 %
Clutch Size [5]  4
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  27,000,000
Incubation [1]  12 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  4 years
Migration [6]  Intercontinental

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Araya and Paria xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Caribbean shrublands France, United Kingdom, Dominica, St. Lucia, Netherlands Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands      
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central American montane forests Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chiapas Depression dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cordillera La Costa montane forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cordillera Oriental montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Panamanian montane forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Guianan Highlands moist forests Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana, Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan moist forests Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican dry forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Antillean dry forests Grenada, St. Lucia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Llanos Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Motagua Valley thornscrub Guatemala Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco wetlands Venezuela Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pantepuis Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Santa Marta montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Talamancan montane forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trinidad and Tobago moist forests Trinidad and Tobago Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Venezuelan Andes montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Arkansas Post National Memorial National Monument V 424 Arkansas, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Morongo Canyon Preserve Area of Critical Environmental Concern V 3906 California, United States
Biscayne National Park II 11085 Florida, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
Cabrillo National Monument V 149 California, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Cayos Cochinos Archipelago National Park Natural Marine Monument   Honduras  
Cedar Creek LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV   Minnesota, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary IV 122962 Belize
Crosswinds Marsh Nature Preserve 1050 Michigan, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Devils Tower National Monument V 1361 Wyoming, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Effigy Mounds National Monument V 1296 Iowa, United States
Estación Biológica El Frío 57221 Venezuela  
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Davis National Historic Site   Texas, United States
Fort Larned National Historic Site III 706 Kansas, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
George WA Carver National Monument V 210 Missouri, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Homestead National Monument of America V 850 Nebraska, United States
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
La Reserva de la Planada   Colombia      
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Meredith National Recreation Area V   Texas, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Little St. Simons Island   Georgia, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Maya Multiple Use Area 1156412 Guatemala  
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Morrocoy National Park 63672 Venezuela  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Parque Nacional Henri Pittier National Park 218030 Venezuela  
Pipestone National Monument V 326 Minnesota, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve   Honduras      
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saint Croix International Historic Site   Maine, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sarstoon Temash National Park II 42082 Belize  
Seaflower Marine Protected Area 15125514 Colombia      
Shortgrass Steppe LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Colorado, United States
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tawas Point State Park 183 Michigan, United States
Tikal National Park II 142943 Guatemala
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wilson's Creek National Battlefield V   Missouri, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Ischaemum rugosum (murainagrass)[7]
Oryza sativa (rice)[7]
Sorghum bicolor (broom-corn)[7]

Predators

Buteogallus anthracinus (Common Black-Hawk)[7]

Range Map

Caribbean; North America;

Audio

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Provided by Xeno-canto under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.5 License Author: Jonathon Jongsma

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Crosswinds Marsh, Wayne County, Michigan
Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Tawas Point State Park
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2