Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Fringillidae > Fringilla > Fringilla coelebs
 

Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)

Wikipedia Abstract

The common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), usually known simply as the chaffinch, is a common and widespread small passerine bird in the finch family. The male is brightly coloured with a blue-grey cap and rust-red underparts. The female is much duller in colouring but both sexes have two contrasting white wings-bars and white sides to the tail.
View Wikipedia Record: Fringilla coelebs

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
15
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
34
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 11.6636
EDGE Score: 2.53873

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  21 grams
Birth Weight [2]  2.2 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  60 %
Diet - Plants [3]  20 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  20 %
Forages - Mid-High [3]  30 %
Forages - Understory [3]  30 %
Forages - Ground [3]  40 %
Clutch Size [5]  5
Clutches / Year [4]  1
Incubation [4]  12 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  29 years
Speed [6]  28.63 MPH (12.8 m/s)
Wing Span [6]  10 inches (.26 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra Australia, New Zealand Australasia Tundra    
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Azores temperate mixed forests Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chatham Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Madeira evergreen forests Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ANTICHASIA ORI KAI METEORA 178032 Greece  
Alte Valli Stura e Maira 103806 Italy  
Arthur's Pass National Park II 257008 South Island, New Zealand
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Batova 94228 Bulgaria  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
DEHESAS DE JEREZ 118651 Spain  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU KAI EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PET 109185 Greece  
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN 110851 Spain  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS 615652 Greece      
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Itäisen Suomenlahden saaristo ja vedet 236302 Finland    
KARLA - MAVROVOUNI - KEFALOVRYSO VELESTINOU - NEOCHORI 107331 Greece  
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
KOILADA KAI EKVOLES SPERCHEIOU - MALIAKOS KOLPOS 117491 Greece  
KORYFES OROUS VORA 99917 Greece  
Kamchiyska Mountain 219637 Bulgaria  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kopetdagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 125705 Turkmenistan  
Kotlenska Mountain 245286 Bulgaria  
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 131864 Greece  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LLANOS DE ALCANTARA Y BROZAS 126519 Spain  
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
La Palma Biosphere Reserve 199419 Canary Islands, Spain    
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Ludogorie 225827 Bulgaria  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Mount Aspiring National Park II 473907 South Island, New Zealand
OREINOS EVROS - KOILADA DEREIOU 120853 Greece  
ORI ANATOLIKIS LAKONIAS 92829 Greece  
OROS MAVROVOUNI 91743 Greece  
OROS TAYGETOS - LAGKADA TRYPIS 120553 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
PERIOCHI THESSALIKOU KAMPOU 236223 Greece  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Picentini 157557 Italy  
Pirin 99722 Bulgaria  
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau 207644 Bulgaria  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Rila 200269 Bulgaria  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
SIERRA DE ALCUBIERRE 103846 Spain  
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
SIERRA DE LAS VILLUERCAS Y VALLE DEL GUADARRANQUE 188630 Spain  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
SIERRAS DE TEJEDA, ALMIJARA Y ALHAMA 100440 Spain  
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sredna Gora 244788 Bulgaria  
Stora Sjofallet National Park II 314943 Sweden
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Syunt-Khasardagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 105306 Turkmenistan  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
Tongariro National Park II 196174 North Island, New Zealand
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Trigrad-Mursalitsa 136717 Bulgaria  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tzentralen Balkan 177099 Bulgaria  
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
VOUNA EVROU 104705 Greece  
Vasilyovska Mountain 112364 Bulgaria  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Western Balkan 362801 Bulgaria  
Western Strandzha 132984 Bulgaria  
Zapadni Rodopi 178482 Bulgaria  
Zlatiata 107477 Bulgaria  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Central Balkan Bulgaria A1, A3, B2, B3, C1, C6
Frontera laurel forest Spain A1, B2, B3, C1, C6  
Karst Slovenia B2, B3
Kočevsko-Kolpa Slovenia B2, B3
Ludogorie Bulgaria B2, B3, C6
Rila Bulgaria A3, B2, B3, C6
River Mura Slovenia B2, B3
Samars'kyj forest Ukraine A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Sredna Gora Bulgaria A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
Triglav National Park Slovenia A3, B2, B3
Ventejís mountain Spain C6  
Western Rhodopes Bulgaria B3, C6

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Prey / Diet

Abax pilleri[7]
Arytaina genistae[8]
Arytainilla spartiophila[8]
Castanea sativa (European chestnut)[8]
Convolvulus arvensis (perennial morningglory)[8]
Crataegus monogyna (Common Hawthorn)[8]
Dacrydium cupressinum (New Zealand red pine)[9]
Epilobium fastigiatoramosum (marsh willowweed)[7]
Fagus sylvatica (European beech)[7]
Filipendula ulmaria (Meadowsweet)[7]
Galeopsis tetrahit (brittle-stem hemp-nettle)[7]
Galium aparine (stickywilly)[7]
Geranium sylvaticum (woodland geranium)[7]
Lamium purpureum (purple deadnettle)[8]
Linaria biebersteinii (ramsted)[7]
Lonicera implexa[10]
Malus pumila (Common apple)[8]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[7]
Persicaria maculosa (Redshank)[8]
Phillyrea latifolia[10]
Phlogophora meticulosa (Angle Shades Moth)[7]
Picea abies[7]
Pistacia lentiscus (mastic tree)[10]
Plantago cornuti (rippleseed plantain)[7]
Poa annua (annual blue grass)[8]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[7]
Polygonum aviculare (Prostrate knotweed)[8]
Pseudopanax crassifolius (lancewood)[9]
Ranunculus acris (meadow buttercup)[7]
Raukaua simplex[9]
Rubus ulmifolius (elmleaf blackberry)[10]
Rumex acetosella (Common Sheep Sorrel)[8]
Rumex oblongifolius (bluntleaf dock)[7]
Rumex obtusifolius (Bitter Dock)[8]
Silene latifolia (bladder campion)[7]
Stellaria media (chickweed)[8]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[7]
Viola arvensis (European field pansy)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)10
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)3
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)3
Arctia caja (garden tiger moth)3
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)4
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)5
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)10
Chloris chloris (European Greenfinch)8
Cnephasia stephensiana (Grey Tortrix Moth)3
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)3
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)8
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)7
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)5
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)4
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)4
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)3
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)3
Gerygone igata (Grey Gerygone)3
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)3
Linaria cannabina (Common Linnet)10
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)6
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)3
Marmota flaviventris (yellow-bellied marmot)3
Parus major (Great Tit)5
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)9
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)5
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)3
Philaenus spumarius (meadow froghopper)5
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)3
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)3
Rhingia campestris3
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)3
Spinus spinus (Eurasian Siskin)3
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)8
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)6
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)5
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)3
Sylvia melanocephala (Sardinian Warbler)4
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)5
Zosterops lateralis (Silvereye)3

Predators

Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[8]
Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)[8]
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)[7]
Falco columbarius (Merlin)[7]
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)[7]
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)[7]
Zamenis longissimus (Aesculapean Snake)[11]

Providers

Shelter 
Picea abies (Norway spruce)[7]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anonchotaenia globata <Unverified Name>[12]
Baruscapillaria angusta <Unverified Name>[12]
Brachydistomum ventricosum <Unverified Name>[12]
Brachylecithum fringillae <Unverified Name>[12]
Brachylecithum mosquense <Unverified Name>[12]
Capillaria angusta <Unverified Name>[12]
Capillaria similis <Unverified Name>[12]
Centrorhynchus areolatus <Unverified Name>[12]
Ceratophyllus borealis[13]
Ceratophyllus fringillae[13]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[13]
Ceratophyllus garei[13]
Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum <Unverified Name>[13]
Collyriclum faba <Unverified Name>[12]
Dasypsyllus gallinulae gallinulae[13]
Dicrocoelium mosquensis <Unverified Name>[12]
Leucochloridium macrostoma <Unverified Name>[12]
Leucochloridium perturbatum[12]
Lyperosomum fringillae <Unverified Name>[12]
Lyperosomum mosquensis <Unverified Name>[12]
Mediorhynchus micracanthus[12]
Monopylidium borealis <Unverified Name>[12]
Monopylidium passerinum <Unverified Name>[12]
Multiuterina skrjabini <Unverified Name>[12]
Orthoskrjabinia bobica <Unverified Name>[12]
Orthoskrjabinia conica <Unverified Name>[12]
Oswaldoia mosquensis <Unverified Name>[12]
Passerilepis passeris <Unverified Name>[12]
Plagiorchis elegans[12]
Plagiorchis maculosus <Unverified Name>[12]
Prosthogonimus cuneatus[12]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[12]
Ptilotolepis skrjabiniana <Unverified Name>[12]
Sobolevitaenia similis <Unverified Name>[12]
Sobolevitaenia sobolevi <Unverified Name>[12]
Sphaerirostris areolatus[12]
Tamerlania zarudnyi <Unverified Name>[12]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Moscow Zoological Park
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sad
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
Zoo Dresden GmbH
Zoo of Antwerpafricana
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH

Distribution

Cape Peninsula National Park; North America;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Xeno-canto under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.5 License Author: Paolo Almeida

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
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Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
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