Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Passeridae > Passer > Passer domesticus
 

Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found in most parts of the world. A small bird, it has a typical length of 16 centimetres (6.3 inches) and a mass of 24–39.5 grams (0.85–1.39 ounces). Females and young birds are coloured pale brown and grey, and males have brighter black, white, and brown markings. One of about 25 species in the genus Passer, the house sparrow is native to most of Europe, the Mediterranean region, and much of Asia.
View Wikipedia Record: Passer domesticus

Invasive Species

Passer domesticus (the house sparrow) is a small bird, native to Eurasia and northern Africa, that was intentionally introduced to the Americas. Passer domesticus are non-migratory birds that are often closely associated with human populations and are found in highest abundance in agricultural, suburban and urban areas. They tend to avoid woodlands, forests, grasslands and deserts. Particularly high densities of Passer domesticus were found where urban settlements meet agricultural areas. They may evict native birds from their nests and out-compete them for trophic resources. Early in its invasion of North America, Passer domesticus began attacking ripening grains on farmland and was considered a serious agricultural pest. Recent surveys indicate populations are declining.
View ISSG Record: Passer domesticus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
18
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.03365
EDGE Score: 1.61615

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  25 grams
Birth Weight [1]  2 grams
Female Maturity [1]  5 months 2 days
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [3]  2
Clutches / Year [1]  4
Diet [2]  Omnivore
Incubation [1]  11 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  23 years
Wing Span [4]  9 inches (.239 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Al Hajar montane woodlands Oman Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alta Paraná Atlantic forests Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Araucaria moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Andean puna Argentina, Bolivia, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Persian desert basins Iran, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Chatham Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Dry Chaco Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Humid Chaco Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Humid Pampas Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kuh Rud and Eastern Iran montane woodlands Iran Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe Morocco Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests India, Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qaidam Basin semi-desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Andean Yungas Bolivia, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra South Africa, France, Australia Antarctic Tundra    
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sulaiman Range alpine meadows Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Banc d'Arguin National Park II 2949017 Mauritania
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Beaver Creek Biosphere Reserve 275028 Arizona, United States  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Bosque Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve V 691895 Paraguay  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Desert National Park II 672840 Rajasthan, India  
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grampians National Park II 416373 Victoria, Australia
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Hawaiian Islands Biosphere Reserve 245981 Hawaii, United States  
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kosciuszko National Park II 1705480 New South Wales, Australia
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
Mount Aspiring National Park II 473907 South Island, New Zealand
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Palawan Biosphere Reserve 2843689 Philippines  
Parque Atlantico Mar Chiquita Nature Reserve VI 706059 Cordoba, Argentina  
Parque Nacional Torres del Paine National Park II 542393 Magallanes, Chile  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Reserva Biologica de la Cordillera de Sama Biological Reserve IV 265144 Bolivia  
Reserva Nacional Lauca National Park II 349990 Chile  
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Riverland Biosphere Reserve Ia 1490891 South Australia, Australia
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
Sanjay Gandhi National Park II 439343 Maharashtra, India
Santuario de la Naturaleza Pumalín Sanctuary 713364 Chile
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Serra da Canastra National Park II 491304 Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
Tinfunqué National Park 607935 Paraguay  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterberg Biosphere Reserve 1024427 Limpopo, South Africa  
West Caprivi Game Reserve Game Park VI 1448182 Namibia  
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Yathong Nature Reserve Ia 270264 New South Wales, Australia
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Ypoa National Park 303997 Paraguay  

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Abax pilleri[5]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[5]
Avena sativa (oats)[6]
Barbarea vulgaris (Common Wintergreen)[5]
Carissa congesta (Conkerberry)[7]
Chenopodium album (lambsquarters goosefoot)[5]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[8]
Geranium sylvaticum (woodland geranium)[5]
Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)[6]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[6]
Malva moschata (musk mallow)[5]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[5]
Panicum miliaceum (hog millet)[6]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[5]
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle)[6]
Prunus domestica (plum)[6]
Ranunculus acris (meadow buttercup)[5]
Rumex oblongifolius (bluntleaf dock)[5]
Silene latifolia (bladder campion)[5]
Sorbus aucuparia (Mountain Ash)[5]
Sorghum bicolor (broom-corn)[6]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[5]
Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Evergreen bagworm moth)[9]
Triticum aestivum (common wheat)[6]
Ulmus americana (American elm)[6]
Urtica dioica (California nettle)[5]
Vicia hirsuta (Hairy Vetch)[5]
Viola arvensis (European field pansy)[5]
Zea mays (corn)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)7
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)2
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)3
Anthocharis cardamines (Orange Tip Butterfly)2
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)2
Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit)2
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)2
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)3
Bison bonasus (European bison)2
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)2
Bufo bufo (Common European toad)2
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)8
Chloris chloris (European Greenfinch)9
Closterotomus fulvomaculatus2
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)2
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)8
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)9
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)2
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)2
Emberiza citrinella (Yellowhammer)2
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)2
Falco subbuteo (Northern Hobby)2
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)9
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)2
Linaria cannabina (Common Linnet)6
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)2
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)2
Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper Butterfly)2
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)4
Lygus rugulipennis2
Marmota flaviventris (yellow-bellied marmot)2
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)2
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)2
Motacilla flava (Western Yellow Wagtail)2
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)3
Parasemia plantaginis (Wood Tiger Moth)2
Parus major (Great Tit)3
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)8
Philaenus spumarius (meadow froghopper)3
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)3
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)2
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)3
Pycnonotus barbatus (Common Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)2
Pyrgus communis (Checkered skipper)2
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)2
Scopula floslactata (Cream Wave Moth)2
Spinus spinus (Eurasian Siskin)2
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian Collared-Dove)4
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)9
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)4
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)3
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)2
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)2
Urocitellus columbianus (Columbian ground squirrel)2
Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)3
Vanessa atalanta (red admiral)2
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)2
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)3

Predators

Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)[6]
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[6]
Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)[5]
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)[5]
Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)[6]
Athene noctua (Little Owl)[10]
Boiga irregularis (Brown catsnake, Brown Tree Snake)[11]
Bubo ascalaphus (Pharaoh Eagle-Owl)[12]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[6]
Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk)[6]
Circus cinereus (Cinereous Harrier)[13]
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))[14]
Falco longipennis (Australian Hobby)[15]
Falco sparverius (American Kestrel)[6]
Felis chaus furax (Jungle cat)[16]
Felis silvestris (Wildcat)[6]
Glaucidium gnoma (Northern Pygmy-Owl)[17]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[6]
Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Horseshoe Snake)[18]
Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (thirteen-lined ground squirrel)[19]
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)[6]
Megascops asio (Eastern Screech-Owl)[6]
Pantherophis obsoletus (Western Rat Snake)[6]
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)[5]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[6]
Pseudoscops clamator (Striped Owl)[20]
Rhinechis scalaris (Ladder Snakes)[21]
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)[5]
Zamenis longissimus (Aesculapean Snake)[22]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acuaria anthuris <Unverified Name>[23]
Acuaria muelleri <Unverified Name>[23]
Acuaria skrjabini[23]
Amphipsylla schelkovnikovi[24]
Anomotaenia dehiscens <Unverified Name>[23]
Anomotaenia passerina <Unverified Name>[23]
Anonchotaenia globata <Unverified Name>[23]
Anonchotaenia magniuterina <Unverified Name>[23]
Anonchotaenia meerutensis <Unverified Name>[23]
Baruscapillaria angusta <Unverified Name>[23]
Baruscapillaria corvorum <Unverified Name>[23]
Baruscapillaria obsignata <Unverified Name>[23]
Baylisascaris procyonis[23]
Birovilepis spasskayae <Unverified Name>[23]
Borgarenkolepis dehiscens <Unverified Name>[23]
Brachydistomum ventricosum <Unverified Name>[23]
Brachylaima erinacei <Unverified Name>[23]
Brachylaima fuscatus[23]
Brachylaima nicolli <Unverified Name>[23]
Callopsylla gemina[24]
Capillaria angusta <Unverified Name>[23]
Capillaria caudinflata <Unverified Name>[23]
Capillaria tridens <Unverified Name>[23]
Caprimolgorchis jhai <Unverified Name>[23]
Ceratophyllus borealis[24]
Ceratophyllus celsus celsus[24]
Ceratophyllus fringillae[24]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[24]
Ceratophyllus hirundinis[24]
Ceratophyllus niger (Western chicken flea)[24]
Ceratophyllus pullatus[24]
Ceratophyllus rusticus[24]
Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum <Unverified Name>[24]
Ceratophyllus tribulis[24]
Choanotaenia infundibulum[23]
Choanotaenia musculosa <Unverified Name>[23]
Choanotaenia passerina <Unverified Name>[23]
Collyriclum faba <Unverified Name>[23]
Cortrema niloticus <Unverified Name>[23]
Ctenophthalmus orientalis[24]
Dasypsyllus gallinulae gallinulae[24]
Dasypsyllus stejnegeri[24]
Dilepis passeris <Unverified Name>[23]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[23]
Dispharynx spiralis <Unverified Name>[23]
Echinostoma revolutum[23]
Eufilaria sergenti <Unverified Name>[23]
Eumegacetes emendataus <Unverified Name>[23]
Eumegacetes medioximus <Unverified Name>[23]
Frontopsylla frontalis alatau[24]
Frontopsylla laeta[24]
Hymenolepis clerci <Unverified Name>[23]
Hymenolepis passeris <Unverified Name>[23]
Isospora boxae <Unverified Name>[25]
Isospora gonnetae <Unverified Name>[25]
Isospora iansmithi <Unverified Name>[25]
Isospora jacobfrenkeli <Unverified Name>[25]
Isospora michaelbakeri <Unverified Name>[25]
Isospora mikei <Unverified Name>[25]
Isospora miltgeni <Unverified Name>[25]
Isospora spratti <Unverified Name>[25]
Lankesterella paddae <Unverified Name>[25]
Laterotrema vexans <Unverified Name>[23]
Leucochloridium macrostoma <Unverified Name>[23]
Leucochloridium parcum <Unverified Name>[23]
Leucochloridium subtilis <Unverified Name>[23]
Mediorhynchus micracanthus[23]
Mediorhynchus papillosus[23]
Microtetrameres minima <Unverified Name>[23]
Mogheia domesticus <Unverified Name>[23]
Mogheia hydrabadensis <Unverified Name>[23]
Mogheia laturensis <Unverified Name>[23]
Monopylidium passerinum <Unverified Name>[23]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[24]
Orthoskrjabinia bobica <Unverified Name>[23]
Paraurotocus fusiformis <Unverified Name>[23]
Passerilepis crenata[23]
Passerilepis fringillarum <Unverified Name>[23]
Passerilepis passeris <Unverified Name>[23]
Plagiorchis brauni <Unverified Name>[23]
Plagiorchis elegans[23]
Plagiorchis maculosus <Unverified Name>[23]
Plagiorchis marii <Unverified Name>[23]
Plagiorchis multiglandularis <Unverified Name>[23]
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus[23]
Plasmodium relictum <Unverified Name>[25]
Porrocaecum ensicaudatum[23]
Prosthogonimus cuneatus[23]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[23]
Raillietina echinobothrida <Unverified Name>[23]
Raillietina galeritae <Unverified Name>[23]
Raillietina tetragona <Unverified Name>[23]
Splendidofilaria pavlovskyi <Unverified Name>[23]
Tamerlania zarudnyi <Unverified Name>[23]
Tanaisia inopina <Unverified Name>[23]
Tarsopsylla octodecimdentata octodecimdentata[24]
Tetrameres minima <Unverified Name>[23]
Urogonimus macrostomum <Unverified Name>[23]
Urotocus fusiformis[23]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
Project Wildlife
Umgeni River Bird Park
Virginia Living Museum
Zoo Duisburg AG
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park; North America; Serra do Cipo National Park; Serra dos Orgaos National Park; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Birds Of A Feather on Myxer

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4DETERMINATION OF BODY DENSITY FOR TWELVE BIRD SPECIES, DAVID M. HAMERSHOCK, THOMAS W. SEAMANS, GLEN E. BERNHARDT, WRIGHT LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH (1993) 5Ecology of Commanster 6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 7Frugivory and seed dispersal of Carissa spinarum (L.) in a tropical deciduous forest of central India, R. M. MISHRA & PUSHPLATA GUPTA, Tropical Ecology 46(2): 151–156, 2005 8"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 9AVIAN PREDATION OF THE EVERGREEN BAGWORM (LEPIDOPTERA: PSYCHIDAE), Robert G. Moore and Lawrence M. Hanks, PROC. ENTOMOL. SOC. WASH. 102(2), 2000, pp. 350-352 10Contribution to the study of the diet of four owl species (Aves, Strigiformes) from mainland and island areas of Greece, Haralambos Alivizatos, Vassilis Goutner and Stamatis Zogaris, Belg. J. Zool., 135 (2) : 109-118 11Body sizes, activity times, food habits and reproduction of brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis) (Serpentes : Colubridae) from tropical north Queensland, Australia, D. F. Trembath and S. Fearn, Australian Journal of Zoology, 2008, 56, 173–178 12Diet Composition of the Pharaoh Eagle Owl, Bubo ascalaphus, in Azraq Nature Reserve, Jordan, Adwan H. SHEHAB, Michal CIACH, Turk J Zool 32 (2008) 65-69 13DIET OF BREEDING CINEREOUS HARRIERS (CIRCUS CINEREUS) IN SOUTHEASTERN BUENOS AIRES PROVINCE, ARGENTINA, María S. Bó, Sandra M. Cicchino, Mariano M. Martínez, J. Raptor Res. 34(3):237-241 14Diet of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus, Rulon W. Clark, Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 494-499, 2002 15Olsen, J., E. Fuentes, DM Bird, AB Rose, and D. Judge. 2008. Dietary shifts based upon prey availability in Peregrine Falcons and Australian Hobbies breeding near Canberra, Australia Journal of Raptor Research 42:125–137 16THE PARASITIC FAUNA AND THE FOOD HABITS OF THE WILD JUNGLE CAT FELIS CHAUS FURAX DE WINTON, 1898 IN IRAQ, Mohammad K. Mohammad, Bull. Iraq nat. Hist. Mus. (2008) 10(2): 65-78 17DIETS OF NORTHERN PYGMY-OWLS AND NORTHERN SAW-WHET OWLS IN WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA, DENVER W. HOLT AND LESLIE A. LEROUX, Wilson Bull., 108(1), 1996, pp. 123-128 18Body size, diet and reproductive ecology of Coluber hippocrepis in the Rif (Northern Morocco), Juan M. Pleguezuelos, Soumia Fahd, Amphibia-Reptilia 25: 287-302 (2004) 19Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, Donald P. Streubel and James P. Fitzgerald, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 103, pp. 1-5 (1978) 20Motta-Junior, JC, C. J R. Alho, and S. C S. Belentani. 2004. Food habits of the Striped Owl Asio clamator in southeast Brazil Pages 777–784 in Raptors worldwide: proceedings of the VI world conference on birds of prey and owls (R. Chancellor and B.-U. Meyburg, Eds.) 21Correlates between morphology, diet and foraging mode in the Ladder Snake Rhinechis scalaris (Schinz, 1822), Juan M. Pleguezuelos , Juan R. Fernández-Cardenete , Santiago Honrubia , Mónica Feriche , Carmen Villafranca, Contributions to Zoology, 76 (3) – 2007 22Food habits of Zamenis longissimus (Laurenti, 1768) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae) in Bieszczady (south-eastern Poland), BARTŁOMIEJ NAJBAR, Vertebrate Zoology 57 (1) 2007, 73-77 23Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 24International Flea Database 25Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
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