Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Sturnidae > Sturnus > Sturnus vulgaris
 

Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling; Common Starling)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), also known as the European Starling or just Starling, is a passerine bird in the family Sturnidae. This species of starling is native to most of temperate Europe and western Asia. It is resident in southern and western Europe and southwestern Asia, while northeastern populations migrate south and west in winter to these regions, and also further south to areas where it does not breed in Iberia and north Africa.
View Wikipedia Record: Sturnus vulgaris

Infraspecies

Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris (Common starling)

Invasive Species

Native to Europe, Asia and North Africa, Sturnus vulgaris (the European starling) has been introduced globally, save in neotropic regions. The starling prefers lowland habitats and is an aggressive omnivore. Sturnus vulgaris cost hundreds of millions of dollars in agricultural damage each year and contribute to the decline of local native bird species through competition for resources and nesting spaces.
View ISSG Record: Sturnus vulgaris

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  86 grams
Birth Weight [2]  6 grams
Female Maturity [2]  1 year
Male Maturity [2]  1 year
Clutch Size [4]  2
Clutches / Year [2]  2
Diet [3]  Omnivore
Incubation [2]  12 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  23 years
Migration [3]  Intercontinental
Speed [5]  36.24 MPH (16.2 m/s)
Wing Span [5]  15 inches (.38 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Al Hajar montane woodlands Oman Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra Australia, New Zealand Australasia Tundra    
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Azores temperate mixed forests Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chatham Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kuh Rud and Eastern Iran montane woodlands Iran Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Currawinya Lakes National Park II 372252 Queensland, Australia
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Desert National Park II 672840 Rajasthan, India  
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grampians National Park II 416373 Victoria, Australia
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Gobi National Park Ia 13211440 Mongolia  
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hevesi-sík 191445 Hungary  
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Karoo National Park II 190300 Western Cape, South Africa
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kosciuszko National Park II 1705480 New South Wales, Australia
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Montesinho/Nogueira 266900 Portugal  
Mount Aspiring National Park II 473907 South Island, New Zealand
Mourão/Moura/Barrancos 209832 Portugal  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
PERIOCHI THESSALIKOU KAMPOU 236223 Greece  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Riverland Biosphere Reserve Ia 1490891 South Australia, Australia
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Tongariro National Park II 196174 North Island, New Zealand
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Vale do Guadiana 189151 Portugal  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Yathong Nature Reserve Ia 270264 New South Wales, Australia
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Prey / Diet

Abax parallelepipedus[6]
Alectryon excelsus[7]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[6]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[6]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[8]
Cornus sanguinea (bloodtwig dogwood)[9]
Dacrycarpus dacrydioides (kahika)[7]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[8]
Hedera helix (Algerian ivy)[9]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[8]
Lithobius forficatus (Brown centipede)[8]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[8]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[6]
Narceus americanus (North american millipede)[8]
Phanaeus vindex (Dung beetle)[8]
Phytolacca americana (common pokeweed)[8]
Prumnopitys taxifolia (Matai)[7]
Prunus avium (Wild Cherry)[9]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[8]
Prunus spinosa (Blackthorn)[9]
Pterostichus melanarius (Common black ground beetle)[8]
Quercus robur (Pedunculate Oak)[6]
Rabidosa rabida (Rabid wolf spider)[8]
Rhamnus cathartica (Hart's thorn)[9]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[8]
Rubus fruticosus (Blackberry Bramble)[9]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[8]
Scaphiopus holbrookii (Eastern Spadefoot)[10]
Solanum aviculare (Kangaroo Apple)[7]
Sorbus aria (Whitebeam)[9]
Sorbus aucuparia (Mountain Ash)[6]
Taxus baccata (Common yew)[9]
Tenodera aridifolia (Chinese mantid)[8]
Tipula paludosa (European crane fly)[6]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[8]
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (American ivy)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acasis viretata3
Acronicta alni (Alder Moth)4
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)4
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)6
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)4
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)9
Anobium punctatum (furniture beetle)3
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)3
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)3
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)4
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)4
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)3
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)11
Celastrina argiolus (Holly Blue Butterfly)4
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)3
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)7
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)3
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)8
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)6
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)4
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)8
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)3
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)5
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)4
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)5
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)3
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)7
Eupithecia tripunctaria (whitespotted pug)3
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)3
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)3
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)4
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae (New Zealand Pigeon)3
Iphiclides podalirius (Scarce Swallowtail)3
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)3
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)3
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)3
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)5
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)7
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)3
Marmota monax (woodchuck)4
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)13
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)7
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)12
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)7
Muscardinus avellanarius (hazel dormouse)3
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)9
Nucifraga caryocatactes (Spotted Nutcracker)3
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)7
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)4
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)3
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)8
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)3
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)6
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)7
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)4
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)7
Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae (Tui)3
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)4
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)5
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)4
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)3
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)5
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)10
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)4
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)5
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)3
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)3
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)6
Synanthedon vespiformis (Yellow-legged Clearwing)3
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)4
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)4
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)4
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)7
Turdus iliacus (Redwing)6
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)14
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)16
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)12
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)5
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)8
Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)3
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)7
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)6
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)4
Zosterops lateralis (Silvereye)4

Predators

Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)[6]
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)[8]
Aquila audax (Wedge-tailed Eagle)[11]
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)[6]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[8]
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)[6]
Corvus cornix (Hooded crow)[12]
Falco cherrug (Saker Falcon)[13]
Falco columbarius (Merlin)[6]
Falco longipennis (Australian Hobby)[14]
Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)[6]
Hieraaetus morphnoides (Little Eagle)[11]
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)[6]
Ninox connivens (Barking Boobook)[15]
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)[6]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[8]

Providers

Shelter 
Acer rubrum (red maple)[8]
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)[6]
Digitaria ischaemum (small crabgrass)[8]
Fagus sylvatica (European beech)[6]
Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore)[8]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[8]
Rudbeckia hirta (Black-eyed Susan)[8]
Symphyotrichum dumosum (Small White Aster)[8]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[8]
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (American ivy)[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acuaria alii <Unverified Name>[16]
Acuaria anthuris <Unverified Name>[16]
Acuaria ornata <Unverified Name>[16]
Acuaria spiralis <Unverified Name>[16]
Anomotaenia spinoscapite <Unverified Name>[16]
Aproctella stoddardi <Unverified Name>[16]
Ascaris ensicaudata <Unverified Name>[16]
Baruscapillaria obsignata <Unverified Name>[16]
Baruscapillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[16]
Baylisascaris procyonis[16]
Biuterina passerina <Unverified Name>[16]
Brachydistomum ventricosum <Unverified Name>[16]
Brachylaima arcuatus <Unverified Name>[16]
Brachylaima fuscatus[16]
Brachylaima mesostoma <Unverified Name>[16]
Brachylecithum alaudae <Unverified Name>[16]
Brachylecithum attenuatum <Unverified Name>[16]
Brachylecithum mosquense <Unverified Name>[16]
Brueelia nebulosa <Unverified Name>[17]
Capillaria caudinflata <Unverified Name>[16]
Capillaria contorta <Unverified Name>[16]
Capillaria exile <Unverified Name>[16]
Capillaria inflexa <Unverified Name>[16]
Capillaria obsignata <Unverified Name>[16]
Capillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[16]
Capillaria similis <Unverified Name>[16]
Cardiofilaria pavlovskyi <Unverified Name>[16]
Ceratophyllus borealis[18]
Ceratophyllus diffinis[18]
Ceratophyllus fringillae[18]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[18]
Ceratophyllus idius[18]
Ceratophyllus pullatus[18]
Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum <Unverified Name>[18]
Ceratophyllus tribulis[18]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[18]
Choanotaenia musculosa <Unverified Name>[16]
Choanotaenia parina <Unverified Name>[16]
Choanotaenia spinosocapite <Unverified Name>[16]
Citellophilus simplex simplex[18]
Collyricloides massanae <Unverified Name>[16]
Collyriclum faba <Unverified Name>[16]
Cramispirura ryzhikovi <Unverified Name>[16]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes bosnicus[18]
Dasypsyllus gallinulae gallinulae[18]
Dicranotaenia crenata <Unverified Name>[16]
Dilepis longisaccata <Unverified Name>[16]
Dilepis undula[16]
Diplotriaena henryi <Unverified Name>[16]
Diplotriaena sturni <Unverified Name>[16]
Diplotriaena tricuspis <Unverified Name>[16]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[16]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[16]
Eucoleus dispar <Unverified Name>[16]
Eufilaria sturninus <Unverified Name>[16]
Fernandezia spinosissima <Unverified Name>[16]
Frontopsylla frontalis alatau[18]
Galactosomum baylisi[16]
Gigantobilharzia sturniae <Unverified Name>[16]
Haploporaxis dujardini <Unverified Name>[16]
Hymenolepis brachyphallos <Unverified Name>[16]
Hymenolepis farciminosa <Unverified Name>[16]
Hymenolepis serpentulus <Unverified Name>[16]
Laterotrema vexans <Unverified Name>[16]
Leptopsylla segnis (European mouse flea)[18]
Leucochloridium actitis <Unverified Name>[16]
Leucochloridium cyanocittae <Unverified Name>[16]
Leucochloridium macrostoma <Unverified Name>[16]
Leucochloridium perturbatum[16]
Leucochloridium phragmitophila <Unverified Name>[16]
Lutztrema attenuatum <Unverified Name>[16]
Lyperosomum armenicum <Unverified Name>[16]
Maritrema subdolum[16]
Mayhewia vulgari <Unverified Name>[16]
Mediorhynchus micracanthus <Unverified Name>[16]
Mediorhynchus papillosus[16]
Megabothris turbidus[18]
Menacanthus eurysternus[17]
Microtetrameres inermis <Unverified Name>[16]
Monopylidium musculosum <Unverified Name>[16]
Monorchilepis dujardini <Unverified Name>[16]
Monosertum parinum <Unverified Name>[16]
Nosopsyllus consimilis[18]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[18]
Nosopsyllus laeviceps laeviceps[18]
Opisthorchis geminus <Unverified Name>[16]
Ornithocapillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[16]
Paricterotaenia parina <Unverified Name>[16]
Passerilepis acollaria <Unverified Name>[16]
Passerilepis crenata[16]
Passerilepis passeris <Unverified Name>[16]
Passerilepis serpentulus <Unverified Name>[16]
Plagiorchis brauni <Unverified Name>[16]
Plagiorchis cirratus <Unverified Name>[16]
Plagiorchis elegans[16]
Plagiorchis maculosus <Unverified Name>[16]
Plagiorchis multiglandularis <Unverified Name>[16]
Plagiorchis nanus[16]
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus[16]
Plagiorhynchus genitopapillatus[16]
Plagiorhynchus gracilis[16]
Plasmodium relictum <Unverified Name>[17]
Polycercus albani <Unverified Name>[16]
Porrocaecum ensicaudatum[16]
Porrocaecum semiteres <Unverified Name>[16]
Prosthogonimus cuneatus[16]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[16]
Pseudobilharziella corvi <Unverified Name>[16]
Sobolevitaenia unicoronata <Unverified Name>[16]
Spelotrema papillorobusta <Unverified Name>[16]
Sphaerirostris turdi[16]
Splendidofilaria caperata <Unverified Name>[16]
Stenoponia tripectinata insperata[18]
Streptocara crassicauda <Unverified Name>[16]
Sturnidoecus sturni[17]
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)[16]
Syphacia stroma <Unverified Name>[16]
Taenia farciminalis <Unverified Name>[16]
Taenia parina <Unverified Name>[16]
Tamerlania zarudnyi <Unverified Name>[16]
Tetracotyle ardea <Unverified Name>[16]
Thominx contorta <Unverified Name>[16]
Thominx similis <Unverified Name>[16]
Urogonimus cardis <Unverified Name>[16]
Vagriofilaria sinensis <Unverified Name>[16]
Variolepis farciminosa[16]
Wardium farcimiosum <Unverified Name>[17]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Abilene Zoological Gardens
Alpenzoo Innsbruck - Tirol
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Kharkiv Zoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Moscow Zoological Park
National Aviary in Pittsburgh
Parque De Animales Silvestres Temaikèn
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sad
Project Wildlife
Turtle Back Zoo
Wilhelma Zoo
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH

Range Map

Link to Map
Cape Peninsula National Park; North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Birds Of A Feather on Myxer

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Banks R.C., 17-Oct-2001, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Cabe, PR (1993). European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). In: Poole, A. and Gill, F. (eds) The Birds of North America, no. 48. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; The American Ornithologist's Union, Washington, DC. 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 6Ecology of Commanster 7FLESHY FRUITS OF INDIGENOUS AND ADVENTIVE PLANTS IN THE DIET OF BIRDS IN FOREST REMNANTS, NELSON, NEW ZEALAND, PETER A. WILLIAMS and BRIAN J. KARL, New Zealand Journal of Ecology (1996) 20(2): 127-145 8Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 9Birds and berries: a study of an ecological interaction. Calton, Great Britain, Snow B.K., Snow D.W., 1988, T & AD Poyser. 268 p. 10Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177 11Olsen, J., Judge, D., Fuentes, E., Rose, AB and Debus, S. (2010). Diets of Wedge-tailed Eagles (Aquila audax) and Little Eagles (Hieraaetus morphnoides) breeding near Canberra, Australia Journal of Raptor Research 44: 50–61 12Un-paint it black: Avian prey as a component of the diet of nestling Hooded Crows Corvus cornix, Piotr Zduniak, Jakub Z. Kosicki & Bartłomiej Gołdyn, Belg. J. Zool., 138 (1) : 85-89 (2008) 13Comparison of Saker Falcon Falco cherrug Prédation during and after the Breeding Period, János Bagyura, László Haraszthy, Sándor Gróf and Iván Demeter, Chancellor, R. D. & B.-U. Meyburg eds. 2004 Raptors Worldwide, p. 673-677 14Olsen, J., E. Fuentes, DM Bird, AB Rose, and D. Judge. 2008. Dietary shifts based upon prey availability in Peregrine Falcons and Australian Hobbies breeding near Canberra, Australia Journal of Raptor Research 42:125–137 15BREEDING-SEASON DIET OF A PAIR OF BARKING OWLS NEAR ARMIDALE, NEW SOUTH WALES, S. J. S. DEBUS, J. A. FORD and A. B. ROSE, Corella, 2005, 29(1): 15-16 16Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 17Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19 18International Flea Database
Invasive Status provided by Global Invasive Species Database Downloaded on 10 May 2011.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2