Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Sturnidae > Gracula > Gracula religiosa
 

Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna; Common Hill Myna)

Wikipedia Abstract

The common hill myna (Gracula religiosa), sometimes spelled "mynah" and formerly simply known as hill myna, is the myna most commonly seen in aviculture, where it is often simply referred to by the latter two names. It is a member of the starling family (Sturnidae), resident in hill regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia. The Sri Lanka hill myna, a former subspecies of G. religiosa, is now generally accepted as a separate species G. ptilogenys. The Enggano hill myna (G.
View Wikipedia Record: Gracula religiosa

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
19
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.21338
EDGE Score: 1.65123

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  192 grams
Clutch Size [2]  2

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Andaman Islands rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Sundas deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mentawai Islands rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nicobar Islands rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle temperate forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Palawan rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park II 421336 Myanmar  
Ao Phang Nga National Park Marine National Park II 103730 Thailand
Bach Ma National Park II 54733 Viet Nam
Bako National Park II 9035 Sarawak, Malaysia  
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Betung Kerihun National Park II 1945086 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Biscayne National Park II 11085 Florida, United States
Bukit Tigah Puluh National Park 360578 Sumatra, Indonesia
Bukit Timah Nature Reserve II 411 Singapore
Bung Kroeng Kavia Non-hunting Area   Thailand      
Buxa Tiger Reserve Sanctuary IV 23685 West Bengal, India  
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Chae Son National Park II 194441 Thailand
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Danau Sentarum National Park 347674 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Doi Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary   Thailand      
Doi Inthanon National Park II 115326 Thailand  
Doi Khun Tan National Park II 61680 Thailand  
Doi Pha Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 144177 Thailand  
Doi Phu Kha National Park II 472119 Thailand  
Doi Suthep-pui National Park II 70007 Thailand  
Erawan National Park II 131204 Thailand
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Gunung Niut Wildlife Reserve Nature Reserve IV 409109 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Gunung Palung National Park II 271203 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Hat Nopharat Thara - Mu Ko Phi Phi National Park Marine National Park II 98578 Thailand
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kerinci Seblat National Park II 3463483 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Khao Ang Ru Nai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 248699 Thailand  
Khao Khieo-Khao Chomphu Wildlife Sanctuary IV 36570 Thailand  
Khao Laem Ya - Mu Ko Samet National Park Marine National Park II 31421 Thailand
Khao Lam Pi - Hat Thai Muang National Marine Park II 17646 Thailand
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Pra Bang Kram Wildlife Sanctuary IV 30009 Thailand  
Khao Pu - Khao Ya National Park II 176398 Thailand
Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary IV 182353 Thailand  
Khao Sok National Park II 159284 Thailand
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khaoen Si Nakarin National Park II 459154 Thailand
Khlong Phraya Wildlife Sanctuary IV 36624 Thailand  
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
Kutai National Park II 560076 East Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Lum Nam Pai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 298416 Thailand  
Mae Sa-Kog Ma Reserve   Thailand      
Mae Tuen Wildlife Sanctuary IV 307947 Thailand  
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Mae Yom National Park II 123569 Thailand
Mae Yuam Wildlife Sanctuary   Thailand      
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Mu Ko Ang Thong National Park Marine National Park II 25953 Thailand  
Mu Ko Chang National Park Marine National Park II 168511 Thailand
Mu Ko Lanta National Park Marine National Park II 33637 Thailand
Mu Ko Similan Marine National Park II 31245 Thailand    
Mu Ko Surin National Park Marine National Park II 39278 Thailand    
Naina Devi Sanctuary IV 9627 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 539941 Laos  
Nam Nao National Park II 240993 Thailand
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Nong Thung Thong Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area   Thailand      
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
Palawan Biosphere Reserve 2843689 Philippines  
Pang Sida National Park II 211956 Thailand
Pasoh Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Phu Chong - Na Yoi National Park II 171322 Thailand
Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park II 75377 Thailand
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Kradung National Park II 63197 Thailand
Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 227671 Thailand  
Phu Phan National Park II 176082 Thailand
Prince Chumphon Park (North) Wildlife Sanctuary IV 152683 Thailand  
Pu Mat National Park IV 239739 Viet Nam  
Ramkhamhaeng National Park II 71016 Thailand
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Sai Yok National Park II 235556 Thailand
Sakaerat Environmental Research Station Biosphere Reserve 19294 Thailand  
Salak Phra Wildlife Sanctuary IV 241622 Thailand  
Salawin National Park II 400497 Thailand
Si Phang Nga National Park II 60672 Thailand
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Sri Satchanalai National Park II 54041 Thailand
Sungai Lalang Forest Reserve Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Tabin Wildlife Reserve IV 275051 Sabah, Malaysia  
Tarutao National Park Marine National Park II 312077 Thailand  
Tasek Bera Forest Reserve   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Thale Noi Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area III   Thailand  
Thaleban National Park Marine National Park II 49715 Thailand
Thap Lan National Park II 550979 Thailand
Thung Salaeng Luang National Park II 315222 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Ujung Kulon National Park II 313466 Java, Indonesia    
Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 619152 Thailand  
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Philippines Philippines No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Wallacea East Timor, Indonesia No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Emblem of

Chhattisgarh
Meghalaya

Prey / Diet

Ficus altissima (false banyan)[3]
Ficus amplissima[3]
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)[3]
Ficus callophylla[3]
Ficus caulocarpa[3]
Ficus crassiramea[3]
Ficus crassiramea subsp. stupenda[3]
Ficus cucurbitina[3]
Ficus delosyce[3]
Ficus drupacea (brown-woolly fig)[3]
Ficus dubia[3]
Ficus geniculata[3]
Ficus glaberrima[3]
Ficus globosa[3]
Ficus kerkhoveni[3]
Ficus kurzii[3]
Ficus pisocarpa[3]
Ficus stricta[3]
Ficus subcordata[3]
Ficus sumatrana[3]
Ficus sundaica[3]
Ficus superba (Sea Fig)[3]
Ficus virens[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acerodon jubatus (golden-capped fruit bat)3
Aceros cassidix (Knobbed Hornbill)3
Aceros corrugatus (Wrinkled Hornbill)9
Aceros waldeni (Walden's Hornbill)6
Aegithina viridissima (Green Iora)3
Alcippe brunneicauda (Brown Fulvetta)3
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)6
Alophoixus pallidus (Puff-throated Bulbul)7
Alophoixus phaeocephalus (Yellow-bellied Bulbul)7
Anorrhinus galeritus (Bushy-crested Hornbill)12
Anorrhinus tickelli (Brown Hornbill)7
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)8
Anthracoceros malayanus (Black Hornbill)16
Arctictis binturong (Binturong)7
Berenicornis comatus (White-crowned Hornbill)3
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)7
Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Hornbill)13
Callosciurus adamsi (ear-spot squirrel)5
Callosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel)5
Callosciurus nigrovittatus (black-striped squirrel)5
Callosciurus notatus (plantain squirrel)9
Callosciurus prevostii (Prevost's squirrel)15
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)17
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)17
Chalcophaps indica (Common Emerald Dove)3
Chloropsis aurifrons (Golden-fronted Leafbird)4
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)15
Chloropsis cyanopogon (Lesser Green Leafbird)12
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)16
Corvus enca (Slender-billed Crow)4
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)4
Dicaeum chrysorrheum (Yellow-vented Flowerpecker)10
Dicaeum concolor (Plain Flowerpecker)5
Dicaeum trigonostigma (Orange-bellied Flowerpecker)5
Ducula badia (Mountain Imperial Pigeon)9
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)5
Garrulax leucolophus (White-crested Laughingthrush)4
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)18
Hylobates moloch (silvery gibbon)5
Iole olivacea (Buff-vented Bulbul)10
Iole propinqua (Grey-eyed Bulbul)8
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)22
Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul)7
Lophura ignita (Crested Fireback)3
Loriculus galgulus (Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot)9
Loriculus vernalis (Vernal Hanging Parrot)7
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)15
Macaca nemestrina (pigtail macaque)9
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)21
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)15
Megalaima faiostricta (Green-eared Barbet)7
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)3
Megalaima henricii (Yellow-crowned Barbet)12
Megalaima incognita (Moustached Barbet)3
Megalaima lineata (Lineated Barbet)5
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)16
Megalaima rafflesii (Red-crowned Barbet)10
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)3
Oriolus xanthonotus (Dark-throated Oriole)4
Platysmurus leucopterus (Black Magpie)4
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)10
Prionochilus maculatus (Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker)7
Prionochilus percussus (Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker)9
Prionochilus thoracicus (Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker)6
Prionochilus xanthopygius (Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker)3
Ptilinopus jambu (Jambu Fruit Dove)4
Pycnonotus atriceps (Black-headed Bulbul)9
Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)15
Pycnonotus cyaniventris (Grey-bellied Bulbul)7
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)6
Pycnonotus eutilotus (Puff-backed Bulbul)12
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)11
Pycnonotus plumosus (Olive-winged Bulbul)5
Pycnonotus simplex (Cream-vented Bulbul)5
Ratufa affinis (pale giant squirrel)6
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)17
Rhinoplax vigil (Helmeted Hornbill)11
Rhyticeros undulatus (Wreathed Hornbill)10
Sus barbatus (bearded pig)3
Symphalangus syndactylus (siamang)7
Tamiops rodolphii (Cambodian striped squirrel)3
Trachypithecus obscurus (dusky leaf monkey)7
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)16
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)22
Treron olax (Little Green Pigeon)4
Tricholestes criniger (Hairy-backed Bulbul)5
Tupaia glis (Common Treeshrew)5
Tupaia minor (Pygmy Treeshrew)7
Zosterops palpebrosus (Oriental White-eye)3

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aalborg Zoointermedia
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Birdland Park & Gardens
Blaavand Zoo
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Burger's Zoo
Dallas Zoo
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
Dr. Shivarama Karanth Pilikula Biol.Pk
DSI Givskud Zoointermedia
Exmoor Zoological Park
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo
Hanoi Zoological Gardens
Harewood Bird Garden at Leeds
Hong Kong Zool. & Botanical Gardens
Honolulu Zoo
 intermedia
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Jesperhus Blomsterpark
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
 intermedia
 religiosa
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Lake Superior Zoological Gardens
Leeds Castle Enterprises Ltd.religiosa
Lion Country Safari Inc - Florida
Lucknow Zoological Park
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantes
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Newquay Zoo (Cornwall Animal World)
Ocean Park Corporation
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opole
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuary
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Zoologique De Cleres (MNHN)indica
Parc Zoologique de Lilleintermedia
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Parken Zoo i Eskilstuna AB
 indica
 religiosa
Parque Ornitologico de Lourosa
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
Rotterdam Zoo
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park
Silesian Zoological Garden
Stichting Nederlands Opvang Papegaaien
 intermedia
Taipei Zoointermedia
Tallinn Zoo
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
Thrigby Hall Wildlife Gardens
 intermedia
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurt
Touroparc
 intermedia
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendaelintermedia
Wilhelma Zoo
Zoo Melakareligiosa
Zoo Parc de Beauvalindica
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbH

Distribution

Caribbean;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1ALI, S. & S.D. RIPLEY (1983): Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan. Oxford University Press, New Delhi. 2Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 3"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access