Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Corvidae > Aphelocoma > Aphelocoma ultramarina

Aphelocoma ultramarina (Mexican Jay; Gray-breasted Jay)

Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Transvolcanic jay (Aphelocoma ultramarina) is a medium-large (~120 g) passerine bird similar in size to most other jays, with a blue head, blue-gray mantle, blue wings and tail, gray breast and underparts. The sexes are morphologically similar, and juveniles differ only in having less blue coloration. The iris is brown and legs are black. It is most readily distinguished by the plain (unstreaked) throat and breast, and the mantle contrasting less with the head and wings.
View Wikipedia Record: Aphelocoma ultramarina


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.97784
EDGE Score: 2.07667


Adult Weight [1]  130 grams
Birth Weight [1]  6 grams
Breeding Habitat [2]  Mexican pine-oak forests
Wintering Geography [2]  Non-migrartory
Wintering Habitat [2]  Mexican pine-oak forests
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore, Nectarivore, Granivore
Diet - Ectothermic [3]  10 %
Diet - Endothermic [3]  10 %
Diet - Fruit [3]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  10 %
Diet - Nectar [3]  20 %
Diet - Scavenger [3]  10 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  20 %
Forages - Mid-High [3]  30 %
Forages - Understory [3]  10 %
Forages - Ground [3]  60 %
Clutch Size [4]  4
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Incubation [1]  18 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  19 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Beaver Creek Biosphere Reserve 275028 Arizona, United States  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Chiricahua National Monument V 1421 Arizona, United States
Coronado National Monument National Memorial III 4360 Arizona, United States
Fort Bowie National Historic Site III 1004 Arizona, United States
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo Biosphere Reserve 353161 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de la Michilia Biosphere Reserve VI 23405 Durango, Mexico  
Saguaro National Park II 11686 Arizona, United States

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Opuntia robusta (Wheel Cactus)[5]
Opuntia streptacantha[5]
Pinus edulis (Colorado pinyon)[6]
Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa pine)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Antilocapra americana (pronghorn)1
Aphelocoma californica (Western Scrub-Jay)2
Callospermophilus lateralis (golden-mantled ground squirrel)1
Canis latrans (Coyote)1
Chaetodipus nelsoni (Nelson's pocket mouse)2
Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker)2
Corvus cryptoleucus (Chihuahuan Raven)2
Cyanocitta stelleri (Steller's Jay)2
Dipodomys phillipsii (Phillips's kangaroo rat)2
Ernobius montanus2
Ernobius punctulatus1
Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)1
Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus (Pinyon Jay)2
Haemorhous mexicanus (House Finch)2
Leptonycteris nivalis (Mexican long-nosed bat)2
Liomys irroratus (Mexican spiny pocket mouse)2
Melozone fusca (Canyon Towhee)2
Mephitis macroura (Hooded Skunk)2
Neotoma albigula (white-throated woodrat)2
Neotoma cinerea (bushy-tailed woodrat)1
Neotoma goldmani (Goldman's woodrat)2
Nucifraga columbiana (Clark's Nutcracker)2
Oreamnos americanus (mountain goat)1
Otospermophilus variegatus (rock squirrel)1
Pecari tajacu (collared peccary)1
Peromyscus boylii (brush mouse)2
Peromyscus truei (pinyon mouse)1
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)1
Sciurus aberti (Abert's squirrel)2
Sciurus arizonensis (Arizona gray squirrel)1
Sciurus griseus (western gray squirrel)1
Sylvilagus audubonii (Desert Cottontail)2
Tamias amoenus (yellow-pine chipmunk)1
Tamias cinereicollis (gray-collared chipmunk)2
Tamias panamintinus (panamint chipmunk)1
Tamias ruficaudus (red-tailed chipmunk)1
Tamias rufus (Hopi chipmunk)1
Tamias umbrinus (Uinta chipmunk)1
Tamiasciurus douglasii (Douglas's squirrel)1
Taxidea taxus (American Badger)2
Toxostoma curvirostre (Curve-billed Thrasher)2
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)1
Zenaida asiatica (White-winged Dove)2

Range Map

North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Seed predation and dispersal in a dominant desert plant: Opuntia, ants, birds, and mammals, Mario González-Espinosa and Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio, Frugivores and Seed Dispersal (eds A. Estrada & T. H. Fleming.), pp. 273–284. Dr W. Junk, Publishers, Dordrecht.
6Balda, Russell P. and Kamil, Alan, Linking Life Zones, Life History Traits, Ecology, and Spatial Cognition in Four Allopatric Southwestern Seed Caching Corvids (2006). Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences. Paper 36.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access