Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Corvidae > Corvus > Corvus frugilegus
 

Corvus frugilegus (Rook)

Wikipedia Abstract

The rook (Corvus frugilegus) is a member of the Corvidae family in the passerine order of birds. Named by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, the species name frugilegus is Latin for "food-gathering".
View Wikipedia Record: Corvus frugilegus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
18
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.08526
EDGE Score: 1.62635

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  453 grams
Female Weight [1]  418 grams
Male Weight [1]  1.08 lbs (489 g)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  17 %
Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Male Maturity [2]  2 years
Clutch Size [4]  4
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Incubation [3]  16 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  21 years
Speed [5]  25.72 MPH (11.5 m/s)
Wing Span [5]  37 inches (.93 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Ghorat-Hazarajat alpine meadow Afghanistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Gobi Lakes Valley desert steppe Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Helanshan montane conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains alpine meadow Mongolia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, LIMNOTHALASSA KATAFOURKO KAI KORAKONISIA 56861 Greece  
Aggtelek Biosphere Reserve National Park II 59233 Hungary
Alpár-bokrosi tisza-ártéri öblözet 12550 Hungary  
Alsó-Tisza-völgy 88306 Hungary  
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Balástya–Szatymaz környéki homokvidék 15266 Hungary  
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Bayerischer Wald National Park II 59790 Germany
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Borsodi-sík 91542 Hungary  
Boschi del Ticino 50788 Italy  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - ALYKI KITROUS 73260 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI - AXIOUPOLI 83216 Greece  
DELTA EVROU 31031 Greece  
DELTA EVROU KAI DYTIKOS VRACHIONAS 24359 Greece  
DELTA NESTOU KAI LIMNOTHALASSES KERAMOTIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 55561 Greece  
DELTA NESTOU KAI LIMNOTHALASSES KERAMOTIS KAI NISOS THASOPOULA 36139 Greece  
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
ETHNIKOS DRYMOS PRESPON 65762 Greece  
Eastern Beskid National Park II 68484 Poland  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Gruppo del Monviso e Bosco dell'Alevè 17871 Italy  
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
KARLA - MAVROVOUNI - KEFALOVRYSO VELESTINOU - NEOCHORI 107331 Greece  
KATO OLYMPOS, OROS GODAMANI KAI KOILADA RODIAS 60719 Greece  
KOILADA KOMPSATOU 41022 Greece  
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Karadagskiy Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik 13876 Ukraine  
Karkonosze National Park II 45907 Poland
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Killarney National Park II 25482 Ireland
Kiskunsag Biosphere Reserve II 54598 Hungary  
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
Kopetdagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 125705 Turkmenistan  
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Kugitang Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 77308 Turkmenistan  
LIMNES KAI LIMNOTHALASSES TIS THRAKIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 72787 Greece  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNES VISTONIS, ISMARIS - LIMNOTHALASSES PORTO LAGOS, ALYKI PTELEA, XIROLIMNI, KARATZA 45016 Greece  
LIMNES VOLVI KAI LAGKADA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 66589 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LLANURAS DEL GUAREÑA 103208 Spain  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Moor House-Upper Teesdale Biosphere Reserve 18254 England, United Kingdom
NOTIO DASIKO SYMPLEGMA EVROU 72341 Greece  
NOTIODYTIKI CHERSONISOS, APOLITHOMENO DASOS LESVOU 71214 Greece    
ORI VOREIOU VOURINOU KAI MELLIA 44123 Greece  
OROS MAVROVOUNI 91743 Greece  
OROS OSSA 59617 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Ostfriesische Meere 14634 Germany  
PARAPOTAMIO DASOS VOREIOU EVROU KAI ARDA 64079 Greece  
PERIOCHI THESSALIKOU KAMPOU 236223 Greece  
PERIOCHI TYRNAVOU 23418 Greece  
Parco Naturale Adamello 53676 Italy  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Polana Biosphere Reserve 50311 Slovakia  
Prespa National Park II 62043 Greece  
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve IV 12219 Moscow, Russia
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
PÁRAMO LEONES 17090 Spain  
RIBERAS DE CASTRONUÑO 20809 Spain  
Repetek Biosphere Reserve 102089 Turkmenistan  
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve 32232 France  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Rheiderland 21461 Germany  
Risaie della Lomellina 76457 Italy  
STENA NESTOU 21629 Greece  
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Solent Maritime 27985 England, United Kingdom
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Syunt-Khasardagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 105306 Turkmenistan  
Tianmushan Biosphere Reserve 47993 China  
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Untere Allerniederung 13312 Germany  
Unterelbe 41304 Germany  
VALDERÍA-JAMUZ 24002 Spain  
Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve 42250 Germany  
Viadana, Portiolo, San Benedetto Po e Ostiglia 17848 Italy  
Vogelschutzgebiet 'Unterer Niederrhein' 63775 Germany  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No

Prey / Diet

Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[6]
Ficus carica (piku)[7]
Gallinula chloropus (Common Moorhen)[6]
Hordeum vulgare (cereal barley)[8]
Limecola balthica (Baltic macoma)[6]
Littorina littorea (Common periwinkle)[6]
Lumbricus rubellus <Unverified Name>[9]
Peringia ulvae (Laver spire shell)[6]
Stenurella melanura[9]
Triticum aestivum (common wheat)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)1
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)1
Alectoris chukar (Chukar Partridge)1
Anas acuta (Northern Pintail)2
Anguis fragilis (Slow Worm)1
Apamea anceps (Large Nutmeg)1
Apamea sordens1
Apus apus (Common Swift)1
Bibio johannis1
Carabus granulatus1
Cerodontha denticornis1
Coloeus monedula (Western Jackdaw)2
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)1
Cuculus canorus (Common Cuckoo)1
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)1
Delia coarctata1
Delia florilega (bean seed maggot)1
Delia platura (seedcorn maggot)1
Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog)1
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)1
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)2
Gallinago gallinago (Common Snipe)1
Gallotia atlantica (Atlantic Lizard)1
Gallotia galloti (Gallot's Lizard)1
Genetta genetta (Common Genet)1
Geomyza tripunctata1
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)1
Hydraecia micacea (potato stem worm)2
Leptopterna dolabrata (meadow plant bug)1
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)1
Lullula arborea (Woodlark)1
Luperina testacea (Flounced Rustic)2
Lygus rugulipennis1
Martes foina (Beech Marten)1
Meles meles (European Badger)1
Meromyza saltatrix (Wheat Stem Maggot Fly)1
Mesapamea secalis (Common Rustic)1
Mesoligia literosa2
Muellerianella fairmairei1
Nucifraga caryocatactes (Spotted Nutcracker)1
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)1
Onychognathus tristramii (Tristram's Starling)1
Opomyza florum (Wheat fly)1
Opomyza germinationis1
Oria musculosa2
Oscinella frit (fruit fly)1
Parus major (Great Tit)1
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)1
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)1
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)1
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)1
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)1
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)1
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)1
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)1
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)1
Pollenia rudis (cluster fly)1
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)1
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)1
Rhagio lineola (Small Fleck-winged Snipe Fly)1
Rhagio scolopaceus (Downlooker Snipe Fly)1
Rhagio tringarius (Marsh Snipe Fly)1
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)1
Sarcophaga carnaria (Camouflaged Flesh Fly)1
Saxicola rubetra (Whinchat)1
Scoliopteryx libatrix (herald moth)1
Scolopax rusticola (Eurasian Woodcock)1
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)1
Sorex araneus (Eurasian shrew)1
Struthio camelus (Ostrich)1
Sus scrofa (wild boar)1
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)1
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)1
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)1
Talpa europaea (European Mole)1
Trachypithecus francoisi (François's leaf monkey)1
Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)1
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)2
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)2
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)2
Turdus torquatus (Ring Ouzel)2
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)2
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1

Predators

Aquila heliaca (Asian Imperial Eagle)[10]

Providers

Shelter 
Fagus sylvatica (European beech)[9]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acuaria anthuris <Unverified Name>[11]
Acuaria attenuata <Unverified Name>[11]
Acuaria ornata <Unverified Name>[11]
Anomotaenia constricta <Unverified Name>[11]
Anomotaenia galbulae <Unverified Name>[11]
Anonchotaenia globata <Unverified Name>[11]
Baruscapillaria corvorum <Unverified Name>[11]
Baruscapillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[11]
Baruscapillaria resecta <Unverified Name>[11]
Brachylaima fuscatus[11]
Brachylecithum lobatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Capillaria corvorum <Unverified Name>[11]
Capillaria resecta <Unverified Name>[11]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[12]
Choanotaenia constricta <Unverified Name>[11]
Dilepis undula[11]
Diplotriaena tricuspis <Unverified Name>[11]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinostoma revolutum[11]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[11]
Eucoleus dispar <Unverified Name>[11]
Harmostomum inflatocoelum <Unverified Name>[11]
Laterotrema vexans <Unverified Name>[11]
Liga brevis <Unverified Name>[11]
Lyperosomum alagesi <Unverified Name>[11]
Lyperosomum longicauda <Unverified Name>[11]
Mediorhynchus micracanthus[11]
Mesocestoides litteratus <Unverified Name>[11]
Mesorchis reynoldi[11]
Microsomacanthus serpentulus <Unverified Name>[11]
Microtetrameres inermis <Unverified Name>[11]
Neodiplostomum corvinum <Unverified Name>[11]
Neodiplostomum krausei <Unverified Name>[11]
Passerilepis crenata[11]
Passerilepis passeris <Unverified Name>[11]
Passerilepis serpentulus <Unverified Name>[11]
Passerilepis stylosa <Unverified Name>[11]
Plagiorchis brauni <Unverified Name>[11]
Plagiorchis elegans[11]
Plagiorchis multiglandularis <Unverified Name>[11]
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus[11]
Plagiorhynchus genitopapillatus[11]
Porrocaecum ensicaudatum[11]
Prosthogonimus cuneatus[11]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[11]
Pseudanomotaenia constricta <Unverified Name>[11]
Sphaerirostris teres <Unverified Name>[11]
Spiniglans affinis <Unverified Name>[11]
Spiniglans constricta <Unverified Name>[11]
Strigea sphaerula <Unverified Name>[11]
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)[11]
Taenia affinis <Unverified Name>[11]
Taenia undulata <Unverified Name>[11]
Tamerlania zarudnyi <Unverified Name>[11]
Tetracotyle ardea <Unverified Name>[11]
Trichinella pseudospiralis[11]
Variolepis crenata <Unverified Name>[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Kaliningrad Zoo
Moscow Zoological Park
Toronto Zoo

Distribution

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Fry, CH, S. Keith, and EK Urban. 2000. The birds of Africa. Volume VI. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3British Trust for Ornithology 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 7"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 8CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE DIET OF IRANIAN BIRDS, Abolghasem Khaleghizadeh, Mohammad E. Sehhatisabet, Екологія, Беркут 15, Вип. 1-2. 2006. pp. 145-150 9Ecology of Commanster 10Relationship between demographics and diet specificity of Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca in Kazakhstan, TODD E. KATZNER, EVGENY A. BRAGIN, STEVEN T. KNICK & ANDREW T. SMITH, Ibis (2005), 147, 576–586 11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 12International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access