Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Corvidae > Coloeus > Coloeus monedula
 

Coloeus monedula (Western Jackdaw; Eurasian Jackdaw; Eurasian Crow)

Synonyms: Corvus monedula
Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The western jackdaw (Corvus monedula), also known as the Eurasian jackdaw, European jackdaw, or simply jackdaw, is a passerine bird in the crow family. Found across Europe, western Asia and North Africa, it is mostly resident, although northern and eastern populations migrate south in winter. Four subspecies are recognised, which mainly differ in the colouration of the plumage on the head and nape. Linnaeus first described it formally, giving it the name Corvus monedula.
View Wikipedia Record: Coloeus monedula

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
19
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.19395
EDGE Score: 1.64749

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  246 grams
Female Maturity [1]  2 years
Male Maturity [1]  2 years
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Endothermic [2]  10 %
Diet - Fruit [2]  30 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  30 %
Diet - Seeds [2]  30 %
Forages - Canopy [2]  10 %
Forages - Mid-High [2]  20 %
Forages - Understory [2]  20 %
Forages - Ground [2]  50 %
Clutch Size [4]  4
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Incubation [3]  20 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  20 years
Speed [5]  27.96 MPH (12.5 m/s)
Wing Span [5]  26 inches (.65 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Gobi Lakes Valley desert steppe Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains alpine meadow Mongolia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe Morocco Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alpi Marittime 83205 Italy  
Alpár-bokrosi tisza-ártéri öblözet 12550 Hungary  
Alsó-Tisza-völgy 88306 Hungary  
Arda Bridge 37121 Bulgaria  
Bakarlaka 82794 Bulgaria  
Balástya–Szatymaz környéki homokvidék 15266 Hungary  
Batova 94228 Bulgaria  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Besaparski Hills 36485 Bulgaria  
Borsodi-sík 91542 Hungary  
Boschi del Ticino 50788 Italy  
CABO DE GATA-NIJAR 122347 Spain  
Calanchi e praterie aride della media Valle del Foglia 26082 Italy  
Crau 97194 France  
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO JALÓN 41432 Spain  
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN 110851 Spain  
DESIERTO DE TABERNAS 28326 Spain  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Derventski Heights 86150 Bulgaria  
EMBALSE DE VALDECAÑAS 18432 Spain  
ESTEPAS DE BELCHITE-EL PLANERON-LA LOMAZA 58678 Spain  
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Furlo 12167 Italy  
HOCES DEL RIO MESA 13186 Spain  
HURDES 66675 Spain  
Harsovska Reka 87546 Bulgaria  
Kaliakra 26893 Bulgaria  
Kamchiyska Mountain 219637 Bulgaria  
Karlukovski Karst 35110 Bulgaria  
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
Kotlenska Mountain 245286 Bulgaria  
Kresna Gordge 58059 Bulgaria  
Krumovitza 27667 Bulgaria  
LA SOTONERA 21696 Spain  
LLANOS DE ALCANTARA Y BROZAS 126519 Spain  
LLANOS DE TRUJILLO 19167 Spain  
LLANOS DE ZORITA Y EMBALSE DE SIERRA BRAVA 46422 Spain  
LOMA LA NEGRA - BARDENAS 15857 Spain  
Ludogorie 225827 Bulgaria  
MATARRAÑA - AIGUABARREIX 90747 Spain  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
MONTES DE ZUERA, CASTEJÓN DE VALDEJASA Y EL CASTELLAR 63037 Spain  
MONTES UNIVERSALES - SIERRA DEL TREMEDAL 79316 Spain  
Maritsa-Parvomay 28430 Bulgaria  
Melnik Pyramids 33555 Bulgaria  
Monte Nerone e Monti di Montiego 22640 Italy  
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Osogovo 59614 Bulgaria  
PARAMERAS DE CAMPO VISIEDO 43866 Spain  
PUERTOS DE BECEITE 36423 Spain  
Palakaria 39064 Bulgaria  
Pirin 99722 Bulgaria  
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau 207644 Bulgaria  
RIBEROS DEL ALMONTE 20665 Spain  
RIO TAJO INTERNACIONAL Y RIBEROS 50091 Spain  
Rila 200269 Bulgaria  
Risaie della Lomellina 76457 Italy  
Ruy 42993 Bulgaria  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
RÍO HUERVA Y LAS PLANAS 74804 Spain  
SIERRA ALHAMILLA 20716 Spain  
SIERRA DE ALCUBIERRE 103846 Spain  
SIERRA DE GATA Y VALLE DE LAS PILAS 45770 Spain  
SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA 131980 Spain  
SIERRA DE LAS NIEVES 49794 Spain  
SIERRA DE MONCAYO - LOS FAYOS - SIERRA DE ARMAS 44956 Spain  
SIERRA MARIA - LOS VELEZ 55819 Spain  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRA SUBBETICA 79212 Spain  
SIERRAS CENTRALES Y EMBALSE DE ALANGE 40949 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
SIERRAS DE LEYRE Y ORBA 14337 Spain  
SIERRAS DE PEÑALSORDO Y CAPILLA 11231 Spain  
SIERRAS DE SANTO DOMINGO Y CABALLERA Y RÍO ONSELLA 88167 Spain  
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Slavyanka 48054 Bulgaria  
Sredna Gora 244788 Bulgaria  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Studen Kladenets 39526 Bulgaria  
Studenetz 69315 Bulgaria  
Thüringische Rhön 49295 Germany  
Trigrad-Mursalitsa 136717 Bulgaria  
Tzentralen Balkan 177099 Bulgaria  
Untereichsfeld - Ohmgebirge 27196 Germany  
Valle del Mezzano, Valle Pega 46611 Italy  
Valli di Comacchio 41464 Italy  
Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex 11569 Bulgaria  
Vasilyovska Mountain 112364 Bulgaria  
Vitosha 67608 Bulgaria  
Vogelschutzgebiet 'Unterer Niederrhein' 63775 Germany  
Vrachanski Balkan 76306 Bulgaria  
Western Balkan 362801 Bulgaria  
Western Strandzha 132984 Bulgaria  
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  
Zlatiata 107477 Bulgaria  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Akarnanika mountains Greece A3, B2, B3, C6
Furlo gorge and Mount Catria Italy B3, C6
Thessaly plain Greece A1, A4ii, B1iii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Prey / Diet

Ficus carica (piku)[6]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[7]
Phlogophora meticulosa (Angle Shades Moth)[7]
Stenurella melanura[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)1
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)1
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)2
Alectoris chukar (Chukar Partridge)1
Amaurobius similis (Lace webbed spider)1
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)1
Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit)1
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)1
Apus apus (Common Swift)2
Araneus diadematus (Cross garden spider)1
Araneus quadratus (Spider)1
Certhia familiaris (Eurasian Treecreeper)1
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)2
Corvus frugilegus (Rook)2
Cuculus canorus (Common Cuckoo)1
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)2
Delichon urbicum (Common house-martin and northern house-martin)1
Emberiza citrinella (Yellowhammer)1
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)1
Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog)1
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)1
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)3
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)2
Gallotia atlantica (Atlantic Lizard)1
Gallotia galloti (Gallot's Lizard)1
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)1
Genetta genetta (Common Genet)1
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)2
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)2
Larinioides cornutus (Furrow Orbweaver)1
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)1
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)2
Lullula arborea (Woodlark)2
Martes foina (Beech Marten)1
Motacilla flava (Western Yellow Wagtail)1
Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher)1
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)3
Onychognathus tristramii (Tristram's Starling)1
Parus major (Great Tit)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)1
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)1
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)1
Pheucticus melanocephalus (Black-headed Grosbeak)1
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)2
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)3
Pholcus phalangioides (Long-bodied cellar spider)1
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)2
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)2
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)2
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)2
Pisaura mirabilis (Tent Spider)1
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)1
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)1
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)2
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)1
Rana temporaria (European frog)1
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)1
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)1
Saxicola rubetra (Whinchat)1
Scoliopteryx libatrix (herald moth)1
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)2
Struthio camelus (Ostrich)1
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)1
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)3
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)3
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)2
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)1
Trachyzelotes pedestris1
Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)2
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)2
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)1
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)2
Turdus torquatus (Ring Ouzel)3
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)2
Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)1
Vespa crabro (European hornet)1
Xysticus cristatus (Wandering Crab Spider)1
Xysticus erraticus1
Zelotes latreillei1

Predators

Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[8]
Hieraaetus pennatus (Booted Eagle)[9]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anomotaenia constricta <Unverified Name>[10]
Baruscapillaria corvorum <Unverified Name>[10]
Baruscapillaria resecta <Unverified Name>[10]
Brachylaima fuscatus[10]
Callopsylla gemina[11]
Capillaria corvorum <Unverified Name>[10]
Capillaria resecta <Unverified Name>[10]
Ceratophyllus fringillae[11]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[11]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus insularis[11]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[11]
Choanotaenia constricta <Unverified Name>[10]
Dilepis undula[10]
Echinostoma revolutum[10]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[10]
Gongylonema pacoi <Unverified Name>[10]
Laterotrema vexans <Unverified Name>[10]
Leucochloridium perturbatum[10]
Mediorhynchus papillosus[10]
Mesocestoides litteratus <Unverified Name>[10]
Mosesia caprimulgi <Unverified Name>[10]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[11]
Oligacanthorhynchus compressus[10]
Oxyspirura pici <Unverified Name>[10]
Passerilepis passeris <Unverified Name>[10]
Passerilepis serpentulus <Unverified Name>[10]
Passerilepis stylosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus[10]
Plagiorhynchus genitopapillatus[10]
Porrocaecum ensicaudatum[10]
Prosthogonimus cuneatus[10]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[10]
Pseudanomotaenia constricta <Unverified Name>[10]
Sphaerirostris pinguis[10]
Spiniglans constricta <Unverified Name>[10]
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)[10]
Tamerlania zarudnyi <Unverified Name>[10]
Urogonimus macrostomum <Unverified Name>[10]
Urotocus rossitensis <Unverified Name>[10]
Variolepis farciminosa[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Kaliningrad Zoo
Moscow Zoological Park
Societa Zoologica Di Pistoia S.R.L
Tropical Butterfly House
Zoo Decin - Pastyrska Stena

Range Map

North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3British Trust for Ornithology
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
7Ecology of Commanster
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9FOOD OF THE BOOTED EAGLE (HIERAAETUS PENNATUS) IN CENTRAL SPAIN, José P. Veiga, RAPTOR RESEARCH VOL. 20 (3/4): 120-123
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
11International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access