Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Turdidae > Turdus > Turdus migratorius
 

Turdus migratorius (American Robin)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The American robin (Turdus migratorius) is a migratory songbird of the thrush family. It is named after the European robin because of its reddish-orange breast, though the two species are not closely related, with the European robin belonging to the Old World flycatcher family. The American robin is widely distributed throughout North America, wintering from southern Canada to central Mexico and along the Pacific Coast. It is the state bird of Connecticut, Michigan, and Wisconsin.
View Wikipedia Record: Turdus migratorius

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
16
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.40833
EDGE Score: 1.4835

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  76 grams
Birth Weight [1]  6 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [3]  4
Clutches / Year [1]  2
Diet [2]  Omnivore
Incubation [1]  13 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  17 years
Migration [2]  Intracontinental

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Beaver Creek Biosphere Reserve 275028 Arizona, United States  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Emblem of

Connecticut
Michigan
Wisconsin

Prey / Diet

Ampelocissus latifolia (American ivy)[4]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[4]
Argiope aurantia (black-and-yellow argiope)[4]
Calopteryx maculata (Ebony jewelwing)[4]
Calosoma scrutator (Fiery searcher)[4]
Cicindela sexguttata (Six-spotted Tiger Beetle)[4]
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)[4]
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)[4]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[4]
Hemaris thysbe (common clear-wing)[4]
Lindera benzoin (northern spicebush)[4]
Lindera triloba (sassafras)[5]
Lithobius forficatus (Brown centipede)[4]
Malacosoma americana (Eastern tent caterpillar)[4]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[4]
Micrathena gracilis (Spined micrathena)[4]
Narceus americanus (North american millipede)[4]
Odontopus calceatus (Sassafras weevil)[4]
Phidippus audax (Daring Jumping Spider)[4]
Phytolacca americana (common pokeweed)[4]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[4]
Prunus serotina[5]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[4]
Pterostichus melanarius (Common black ground beetle)[4]
Rabidosa rabida (Rabid wolf spider)[4]
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)[4]
Rosa virginiana (Virginia Rose)[4]
Sphecius speciosus (cicada killer)[4]
Tenodera aridifolia (Chinese mantid)[4]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[4]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[4]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[4]
Vitis cinerea (graybark grape)[5]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[4]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[4]
Crataegus viridis (desert hawthorn)[4]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[4]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[4]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[4]
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry)[4]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[4]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)9
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)14
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)2
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)2
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)8
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)4
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)17
Apis mellifera (honey bee)4
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)2
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)13
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)2
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)6
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)3
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)22
Castor canadensis (american beaver)5
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)5
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)16
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)14
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)16
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)17
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)3
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)11
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)8
Dumetella carolinensis (Grey Catbird)5
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)10
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)4
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)9
Incisalia henrici (Henry's Elfin)2
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)2
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)3
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)11
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)14
Marmota monax (woodchuck)5
Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker)2
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)27
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)16
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)5
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)20
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)12
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)21
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)2
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)2
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)14
Paonias myops (small-eyed sphinx)2
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)7
Papilio troilus (spicebush swallowtail)4
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)15
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)12
Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager)3
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)14
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)5
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)10
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)14
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)8
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)4
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)4
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)9
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)14
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)21
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)14
Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)4
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)16
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)11
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)9
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)7
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)6
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)9
Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird)3
Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)4
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)8
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)7
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)6

Predators

Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)[4]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[4]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[4]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[4]

Providers

Shelter 
Bidens frondosa (Devil's Beggarticks)[4]
Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam)[4]
Digitaria ischaemum (small crabgrass)[4]
Hamamelis virginiana (American witchhazel)[4]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[4]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[4]
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[4]
Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine)[4]
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[4]
Quercus alba (White Oak)[4]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[4]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[4]
Crataegus viridis (desert hawthorn)[4]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[4]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[4]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[4]
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry)[4]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[4]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aploparaksis dujardinii[6]
Ascaridia galli[6]
Baruscapillaria obsignata <Unverified Name>[6]
Baruscapillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[6]
Baylisascaris procyonis[6]
Brachydistomum ventricosum <Unverified Name>[6]
Brachylecithum mosquense <Unverified Name>[6]
Capillaria caudinflata <Unverified Name>[6]
Capillaria obsignata <Unverified Name>[6]
Capillaria quiscali <Unverified Name>[6]
Cardiofilaria pavlovskyi <Unverified Name>[6]
Ceratophyllus diffinis[7]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[7]
Ceratophyllus garei[7]
Ceratophyllus niger (Western chicken flea)[7]
Dasypsyllus gallinulae perpinnatus[7]
Dilepis undula[6]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[6]
Echidnophaga gallinacea (sticktight flea)[7]
Hymenolepis planestici <Unverified Name>[6]
Lutztrema monenteron[6]
Passerilepis crenata[6]
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus[6]
Porrocaecum ensicaudatum[6]
Splendidofilaria caperata <Unverified Name>[6]
Syngamus merulae <Unverified Name>[6]
Weinlandia planestici <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Abilene Zoological Gardens
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
Assiniboine Park Zoomigratorius
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Cosley Zoo
Coyote Point Museum
Dallas Zoo
Florida Aquarium
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Knoxville Zoological Gardens
Living Desert State Park (Carlsbad)
National Aviary in Pittsburgh
North Carolina Zoological Park
Queens Zoo
South Carolina Aquarium
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr

Range Map

Caribbean; North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by eNature via Myxer Author: Lang Elliot

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 5Characteristics of Some Fruiting Plant Species in Northwest Arkansas, and the Avian Assemblages that Feed on Them, John W. Prather, Kimberly G. Smith, Michael A. Mlodinow, Cecilia M. Riley, Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science,Vol. 54, 2000, pp. 103-108 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 7International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2