Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Turdidae > Sialia > Sialia sialis
 

Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) is a small bird found in open woodlands, farmlands, and orchards. It is the state bird of Missouri and New York.This species measures 16–21 cm (6.3–8.3 in) long, spans 25–32 cm (9.8–12.6 in) across the wings, and weighs 27–34 g (0.95–1.20 oz).
View Wikipedia Record: Sialia sialis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
12
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
31
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 9.91101
EDGE Score: 2.38977

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  31 grams
Birth Weight [1]  2 grams
Female Maturity [1]  10 months 6 days
Male Maturity [1]  10 months 21 days
Clutch Size [3]  5
Clutches / Year [1]  2
Diet [2]  Carnivore
Incubation [1]  14 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  10 years
Migration [2]  Intracontinental

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Balsas dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central American montane forests Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Antietam National Battlefield III 3263 Maryland, United States
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge IV 4842 Georgia, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Chiricahua National Monument V 1421 Arizona, United States
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
Coronado National Monument National Memorial III 4360 Arizona, United States
Crosswinds Marsh Nature Preserve 1050 Michigan, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Effigy Mounds National Monument V 1296 Iowa, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Greenwater Provincial Park II 11019 Ontario, Canada
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Homestead National Monument of America V 850 Nebraska, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Knife River Indian Villages National Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1756 North Dakota, United States
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Montecristo National Park IV 9237 El Salvador  
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saguaro National Park II 11686 Arizona, United States
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Vicksburg National Military Park V 1651 Mississippi, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Emblem of

Missouri
New York

Prey / Diet

Ampelocissus latifolia (American ivy)[4]
Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug)[4]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[4]
Cicindela sexguttata (Six-spotted Tiger Beetle)[4]
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)[4]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[4]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[4]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[4]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[4]
Lithobius forficatus (Brown centipede)[4]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[4]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[4]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[4]
Micrathena gracilis (Spined micrathena)[4]
Phidippus audax (Daring Jumping Spider)[4]
Phytolacca americana (common pokeweed)[4]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[4]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[4]
Pterophylla camellifolia (common true katydid)[4]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[4]
Rosa virginiana (Virginia Rose)[4]
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry)[4]
Sorex cinereus (masked shrew)[5]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[4]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)5
Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)1
Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)1
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)7
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)1
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)3
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)2
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)9
Anthophora abrupta (miner bee)1
Apis mellifera (honey bee)6
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)2
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)1
Automeris io (Io moth)1
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)8
Battus philenor (pipevine swallowtail)1
Blarina brevicauda (Northern Short-tailed Shrew)1
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)4
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)3
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)2
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)16
Castor canadensis (american beaver)3
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)3
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)15
Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer)1
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)9
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)7
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)9
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)2
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)7
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)5
Dumetella carolinensis (Grey Catbird)2
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)4
Euphydryas phaeton (Baltimore checkerspot)1
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)3
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)5
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Greenhouse thrip)2
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)1
Incisalia henrici (Henry's Elfin)2
Incisalia niphon (Eastern Pine Elfin)1
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)2
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)1
Lithobates pipiens (Northern Leopard Frog)1
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)6
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)6
Marmota monax (woodchuck)4
Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker)1
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)18
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)9
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)4
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)15
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)5
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)1
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)13
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)3
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)1
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)11
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)1
Paonias myops (small-eyed sphinx)1
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)3
Papilio troilus (spicebush swallowtail)1
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)11
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)7
Picromerus bidens (Spined Stink Bug )1
Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager)1
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)8
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)4
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)5
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Strawberry bass)1
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)11
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)5
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)4
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)2
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)6
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)9
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)1
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)5
Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)5
Strix nebulosa (Great Grey Owl)1
Strix varia (Barred Owl)1
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)10
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)9
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)9
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)4
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)3
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)6
Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher)1
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)21
Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird)1
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)1
Vireo griseus (White-eyed Vireo)1
Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)9
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)6
Zicrona caerulea (Blue Shield Bug)1
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)4

Predators

Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)[4]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[4]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[4]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[4]

Providers

Shelter 
Acer rubrum (red maple)[4]
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[4]
Bidens frondosa (Devil's Beggarticks)[4]
Carex stricta (upright sedge)[4]
Daucus carota (bird's nest)[4]
Digitaria ischaemum (small crabgrass)[4]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[4]
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[4]
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[4]
Platanus mexicana (American sycamore)[4]
Quercus alba (White Oak)[4]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[4]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[4]
Salix nigra (black willow)[4]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ceratophyllus diffinis[6]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[6]
Ceratophyllus idius[6]
Eumolpianus eumolpi eumolpi[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Cosley Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Hutchinson Zoo
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Saint Louis Zoological Park
South Carolina Aquarium
Tennessee Aquarium
Toronto Zoo
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum

Range Map

North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by eNature via Myxer Author: Lang Elliot

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 5Sorex cinereus, John O. Whitaker, Jr., MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 743, pp. 1–9 (2004) 6International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Crosswinds Marsh, Wayne County, Michigan Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2