Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Turdidae > Sialia > Sialia mexicana
 

Sialia mexicana (Western Bluebird)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The western bluebird (Sialia mexicana) is a small thrush, about 15 to 18 cm (5.9 to 7.1 in) in length. Adult males are bright blue on top and on the throat with an orange breast and sides, a brownish patch on back, and a gray belly and undertail coverts. Adult females have a duller blue body, wings, and tail than the male, a gray throat, a dull orange breast, and a gray belly and undertail coverts. Immature western bluebirds have duller colors than the adults, they also have spots on their chest and back. These color patterns help play a part in the mating ritual, when males compete for breeding rights to females.
View Wikipedia Record: Sialia mexicana

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
11
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
30
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 9.35286
EDGE Score: 2.33726

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  27 grams
Birth Weight [1]  3 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Breeding Habitat [2]  Temperate western forests, Mexican pine-oak forests
Wintering Geography [2]  Western U.S./Mexico
Wintering Habitat [2]  Temperate western forests, Desert scrub
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  70 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  10 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [4]  5
Clutches / Year [1]  2
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  7,300,000
Incubation [1]  14 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  6 years
Migration [5]  Intracontinental

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Aztec Ruins National Monument V 321 New Mexico, United States
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Beaver Creek Biosphere Reserve 275028 Arizona, United States  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Morongo Canyon Preserve Area of Critical Environmental Concern V 3906 California, United States
Boggs Lake Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 192 California, United States
Boggs Mountain Demonstration State Forest   California, United States
Bryce Canyon National Park II 36348 Utah, United States
Cabrillo National Monument V 149 California, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carrizo Plain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7550 California, United States  
Casa Grande National Monument V 468 Arizona, United States
Cedar Breaks National Monument III 6111 Utah, United States
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Chaco Culture National Historical Park V 34277 New Mexico, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chiricahua National Monument V 1421 Arizona, United States
Coachella Valley Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 8106 California, United States
Colorado National Monument III 20420 Colorado, United States
Coronado National Monument National Memorial III 4360 Arizona, United States
Cosumnes River Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 2138 California, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Curecanti National Recreation Area V 31032 Colorado, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge Ia   Idaho, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
El Morro National Monument V 960 New Mexico, United States
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Fairfield Osborn Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 190 California, United States
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Fort Bowie National Historic Site III 1004 Arizona, United States
Fort Davis National Historic Site   Texas, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Gray Lodge State Wildlife Area State Wildlife Management Area IV 8471 California, United States
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Gulf Islands National Park National Park Reserve II 8785 British Columbia, Canada
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Heath and Marjorie Angelo Coast Range Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7008 California, United States
Hibberd Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 1485 California, United States  
Hovenweep National Monument V 770 Colorado, Utah, United States
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kaweah Oaks Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 319 California, United States  
Kern River Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 834 California, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Landels-Hill Big Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 45 California, United States
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
McGinty Mountain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 753 California, United States  
Mesa Verde National Park II 40098 Colorado, United States
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Mount Tamalpais State Park 6365 California, United States
Mountain Home Demonstration State Forest   California, United States
Muir Woods National Monument V 492 California, United States
Natural Bridges National Monument III 7412 Utah, United States
Navajo National Monument V 604 Arizona, United States
Nez Perce National Historical Park V 2076 Idaho, United States
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Paine Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 2965 California, United States    
Pecos National Historical Park V 6539 New Mexico, United States
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center 6101 California, United States
Pinnacles National Monument V 2869 California, United States
Pipe Spring National Monument V 41 Arizona, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de la Michilia Biosphere Reserve VI 23405 Durango, Mexico  
Rockville Hills Regional Park   California, United States  
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Saguaro National Park II 11686 Arizona, United States
Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument V 1081 New Mexico, United States
Samuel P. Taylor State Park 2694 California, United States
San Dimas Biosphere Reserve 17161 California, United States  
San Joaquin Biosphere Reserve 4527 California, United States  
San Juan Island National Historical Park III 1674 Washington, United States
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shortgrass Steppe LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Colorado, United States
Table Mountain   California, United States      
Tonto National Monument V 1123 Arizona, United States
Walnut Canyon National Monument V 3386 Arizona, United States
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Williams Wildlife Preserve Wildlife Reserve   California, United States      
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Amara aurata[6]
Amelanchier alnifolia (serviceberry)[6]
Blapstinus dilatatus[6]
Calamosternus granarius[6]
Coccinella californica[6]
Dellacasiellus fucosus[6]
Endotropis crocea subsp. ilicifolia (hollyleaf redberry)[6]
Hippodamia convergens (convergent lady beetle)[6]
Labarrus lividus[6]
Messor andrei[6]
Otophorus haemorrhoidalis[6]
Phoradendron californicum (mesquite mistletoe)[6]
Phoradendron leucarpum subsp. leucarpum (Oak mistletoe)[6]
Polycaon stoutii (Stout's bostrichid)[6]
Rhigopsis effracta[6]
Saissetia miranda (mexican black scale)[6]
Sinea diadema (spined assassin bug)[6]
Sitona hispidulus (clover-root weevil)[6]
Toxicodendron diversilobum (pacific poisonoak)[6]
Vrilletta murrayi[6]

Predators

Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)[6]
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)[6]
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)[6]
Buteo albonotatus (Zone-tailed Hawk)[6]
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)[6]
Falco columbarius (Merlin)[6]
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)[7]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Variolepis farciminosa[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Sequoia Park Zoo
Tracy Aviary

Range Map

Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary; Lake Meredith National Recreation Area; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Feeding ecology of North American gopher snakes (Pituophis catenifer, Colubridae), JAVIER A. RODRÍGUEZ-ROBLES, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2002, 77, 165–183
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access