Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Muscicapidae > Oenanthe > Oenanthe oenanthe
 

Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The northern wheatear or wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae, but is now more generally considered to be an Old World flycatcher, Muscicapidae.
View Wikipedia Record: Oenanthe oenanthe

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
6
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
22
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.43957
EDGE Score: 1.86246

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  25 grams
Birth Weight [1]  3 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic tundra, Alpine tundra
Wintering Geography [2]  Paleotropics
Wintering Habitat [2]  Grasslands, Agricultural
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  70 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  10 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [4]  5
Clutches / Year [5]  2
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  2,600,000
Incubation [1]  14 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  10 years
Migration [6]  Intercontinental
Speed [7]  28.63 MPH (12.8 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  11 inches (.28 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cameroonian Highlands forests Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cape Verde Islands dry forests Cape Verde Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests    
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Saharan montane xeric woodlands Chad, Sudan Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Helanshan montane conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hindu Kush alpine meadow Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kuh Rud and Eastern Iran montane woodlands Iran Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe Morocco Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands Chad, Libya Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Saharan montane xeric woodlands Algeria, Niger, Mali, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ANTICHASIA ORI KAI METEORA 178032 Greece  
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Camargue 546256 France  
Chausey 203679 France  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Costa Sudoeste 183883 Portugal  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS 615652 Greece      
FUENTES CARRIONAS Y FUENTE COBRE-MONTAÑA PALENTINA 193184 Spain  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Great Gobi National Park Ia 13211440 Mongolia  
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hevesi-sík 191445 Hungary  
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Korup National Park II 322100 Cameroon
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Les Cévennes 227446 France  
Les Ecrins 227201 France  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Montesinho/Nogueira 266900 Portugal  
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Mourão/Moura/Barrancos 209832 Portugal  
Nechisar National Park II 256137 Ethiopia  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
PERIOCHI THESSALIKOU KAMPOU 236223 Greece  
Parc National de Waza National Park II 349858 Cameroon  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National de la Lopé National Park 1227419 Gabon  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso 175751 Italy  
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Picentini 157557 Italy  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Nevada Biosphere Reserve 424147 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere de la Pendjari Biosphere Reserve 217453 Benin  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
SIERRA DE GREDOS 213494 Spain  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
The W Region National Park II 549843 Niger  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
UK-PUISTO-SOMPIO-KEMIHAARA 765461 Finland  
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Veluwe 229936 Netherlands  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Zempléni-hegység a Szerencsi-dombsággal és a Hernád-völggyel 284651 Hungary  

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Prey / Diet

Chorthippus biguttulus (Bow-winged Grasshopper)[8]
Cryphoeca silvicola[8]
Dolycoris baccarum <Unverified Name>[8]
Lasius niger (Black garden ant)[8]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[8]
Phlogophora meticulosa (Angle Shades Moth)[8]
Schistocerca gregaria (desert locust)[9]
Stenurella melanura[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)2
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)2
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)2
Amaurobius similis (Lace webbed spider)1
Anguis fragilis (Slow Worm)1
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)2
Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit)2
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)3
Apodemus flavicollis (Yellow-necked mouse)1
Apodemus sylvaticus (Old World wood and field mouse)1
Apus apus (Common Swift)2
Araneus diadematus (Cross garden spider)1
Araneus quadratus (Spider)1
Argiope bruennichi (Bruennich's garden spider)2
Athene noctua (Little Owl)1
Bufo bufo (Common European toad)1
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)1
Certhia brachydactyla (Short-toed Treecreeper)1
Certhia familiaris (Eurasian Treecreeper)2
Chloris chloris (European Greenfinch)1
Ciconia ciconia (White Stork)1
Ciconia nigra (Black Stork)1
Coloeus monedula (Western Jackdaw)3
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)1
Corvus frugilegus (Rook)1
Cuculus canorus (Common Cuckoo)1
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)3
Delichon urbicum (Common house-martin and northern house-martin)1
Dendrocopos medius (Middle Spotted Woodpecker)2
Dryocopus martius (Black Woodpecker)1
Emberiza citrinella (Yellowhammer)1
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)2
Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog)1
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)2
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)3
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)2
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)3
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)2
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)5
Larinioides cornutus (Furrow Orbweaver)1
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)2
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)3
Lullula arborea (Woodlark)3
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)1
Milvus milvus (Red Kite)1
Motacilla flava (Western Yellow Wagtail)1
Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher)1
Mustela putorius (European Polecat)1
Myodes glareolus (Bank vole)1
Notiophilus biguttatus1
Parus major (Great Tit)3
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)1
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)1
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)2
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)2
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)4
Pholcus phalangioides (Long-bodied cellar spider)1
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)3
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)2
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)3
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)2
Picus canus (Grey-headed Woodpecker)1
Picus viridis (European Green Woodpecker)1
Pisaura mirabilis (Tent Spider)1
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)2
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)2
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)3
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)1
Rana temporaria (European frog)2
Regulus ignicapilla (Firecrest)1
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)2
Saxicola rubetra (Whinchat)3
Saxicola rubicola (European Stonechat)4
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)2
Sorex araneus (Eurasian shrew)2
Spinus spinus (Eurasian Siskin)1
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)1
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)3
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)4
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)3
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)1
Talpa europaea (European Mole)1
Trachyzelotes pedestris1
Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)4
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)2
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)1
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)3
Turdus torquatus (Ring Ouzel)3
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)2
Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)3
Vespa crabro (European hornet)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1
Xysticus cristatus (Wandering Crab Spider)1
Xysticus erraticus1
Zelotes latreillei1
Zootoca vivipara louislantzi (Viviparous Lizard)1

Predators

Falco columbarius (Merlin)[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Biuterina triangula <Unverified Name>[10]
Brachydistomum ventricosum <Unverified Name>[10]
Ceratophyllus borealis[11]
Ceratophyllus frigoris[11]
Ceratophyllus garei[11]
Ceratophyllus sinicus[11]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[11]
Dasypsyllus gallinulae gallinulae[11]
Dilepis undula[10]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[10]
Frontopsylla frontalis alatau[11]
Laterotrema vexans <Unverified Name>[10]
Mediorhynchus micracanthus[10]
Mediorhynchus papillosus[10]
Mediorhynchus zosteropis[10]
Monopylidium trigonocephalum <Unverified Name>[10]
Plagiorchis elegans[10]
Plagiorhynchus charadrii[10]
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus[10]
Plagiorhynchus genitopapillatus[10]
Porrocaecum ensicaudatum[10]
Sobolevitaenia unicoronata <Unverified Name>[10]
Spirocerca lupi[10]

Range Map

Caribbean; North America; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5British Trust for Ornithology
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8Ecology of Commanster
9SYMENS, P. (1988). Effects of the mass migration of desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria on birds in the Taif area. Arabia.
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
11International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access