Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Phylloscopidae > Phylloscopus > Phylloscopus trochilus
 

Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)

Wikipedia Abstract

The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is a very common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia, from Ireland east to the Anadyr River basin in eastern Siberia. It is strongly migratory, with almost all of the population wintering in sub-Saharan Africa.It is a bird of open woodlands with trees and ground cover for nesting, including most importantly birch, alder, and willow habitats.
View Wikipedia Record: Phylloscopus trochilus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
8
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
25
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.57354
EDGE Score: 2.02466

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  9 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [3]  6
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Incubation [2]  13 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  12 years
Migration [4]  Intercontinental
Wing Span [2]  7 inches (.19 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaic Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cameroonian Highlands forests Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cape Verde Islands dry forests Cape Verde Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests    
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Central Congolian lowland forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East African mangroves Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia Afrotropic Mangroves
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Etosha Pan halophytics Namibia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Jos Plateau forest-grassland mosaic Nigeria Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains alpine meadow Mongolia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Niger Delta swamp forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwestern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea coastal desert Egypt, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra South Africa, France, Australia Antarctic Tundra    
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian halophytics Mozambique, Botswana Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Alsó-Tisza-völgy 88306 Hungary  
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Augrabies Falls National Park II 137301 Northern Cape, South Africa
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
CAMPIÑAS DE SEVILLA 88303 Spain  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Costa Sudoeste 183883 Portugal  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU KAI EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PET 109185 Greece  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN 110851 Spain  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS 615652 Greece      
Estuário do Tejo 110634 Portugal  
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
GORGES DE LA DORDOGNE 113760 France  
Gorges de la Loire 145350 France  
Haut Val d'Allier 145560 France  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Hwange National Park II 3651385 Zimbabwe  
Itäisen Suomenlahden saaristo ja vedet 236302 Finland    
KARLA - MAVROVOUNI - KEFALOVRYSO VELESTINOU - NEOCHORI 107331 Greece  
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Karoo National Park II 190300 Western Cape, South Africa
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kibale National Park II 196202 Uganda
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Korup National Park II 322100 Cameroon
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 131864 Greece  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Lapalala Wilderness Nature Reserve 88958 Limpopo, South Africa
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Liwonde National Park II 116740 Malawi  
MATARRAÑA - AIGUABARREIX 90747 Spain  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Marahoue National Park II 293884 Côte d'Ivoire  
Marakele National Park II 163507 Limpopo, South Africa
Mount Kenya Biosphere Reserve II 146694 Kenya
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Nouabalï-Ndoki National Park II 1013529 Congo  
OREINOS EVROS - KOILADA DEREIOU 120853 Greece  
ORI ANATOLIKIS LAKONIAS 92829 Greece  
OROS MAVROVOUNI 91743 Greece  
OROS PARNASSOS 84965 Greece  
OROS TAYGETOS - LAGKADA TRYPIS 120553 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Omo Strict Natural Reserve Forest Reserve 328086 Nigeria  
Parc National de Tai National Park II 1085310 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National de la Lopé National Park 1227419 Gabon  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
SIERRA DE ALCUBIERRE 103846 Spain  
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA 131980 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
SIERRAS DE SANTO DOMINGO Y CABALLERA Y RÍO ONSELLA 88167 Spain  
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Serra do Gerês 156759 Portugal  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Stora Sjofallet National Park II 314943 Sweden
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Takamanda National Park II 167041 Cameroon  
The W Region National Park II 549843 Niger  
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waterberg Biosphere Reserve 1024427 Limpopo, South Africa  

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No

Prey / Diet

Adelphocoris quadripunctatus[5]
Antiaris toxicaria[6]
Casearia battiscombei[6]
Cryphoeca silvicola[5]
Ficus sur (Cape fig)[6]
Manilkara butugi[6]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[5]
Polyscias fulva[6]
Solanum mauritianum (earleaf nightshade)[6]
Stenurella melanura[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)3
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)2
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)2
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)2
Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit)2
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)3
Apus apus (Common Swift)3
Arizelocichla masukuensis (Shelley's Greenbul)2
Bufo bufo (Common European toad)2
Bycanistes subcylindricus (Grey-cheeked Hornbill)3
Cercopithecus ascanius (black-cheeked white-nosed monkey)3
Cercopithecus mitis (blue monkey)4
Certhia familiaris (Eurasian Treecreeper)3
Chlorocichla laetissima (Joyful Greenbul)4
Colobus guereza (Guereza)3
Coloeus monedula (Western Jackdaw)2
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)3
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)2
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)2
Eurillas curvirostris (Plain Greenbul)2
Eurillas latirostris (Yellow-whiskered Greenbul)3
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)3
Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel)2
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)2
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)2
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)3
Lullula arborea (Woodlark)2
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)3
Parus major (Great Tit)3
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)2
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)2
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)4
Phylloscopus budongoensis (Uganda Woodland Warbler)3
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)4
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)5
Ploceus bicolor (Dark-backed Weaver)2
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)2
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)2
Pogoniulus bilineatus (Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird)3
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)3
Pycnonotus barbatus (Common Bulbul)5
Rana temporaria (European frog)2
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)3
Saxicola rubetra (Whinchat)3
Saxicola rubicola (European Stonechat)3
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)2
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)8
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)2
Treron calvus (African Green Pigeon)2
Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)4
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)3
Turdus torquatus (Ring Ouzel)2
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)2
Zosterops senegalensis (African Yellow White-eye)5

Predators

Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)[7]
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)[5]
Falco eleonorae (Eleonora's Falcon)[8]

Providers

Shelter 
Rosa canina (Dog Rose)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Brachylecithum vanellicola <Unverified Name>[9]
Ceratophyllus borealis[10]
Ceratophyllus columbae[10]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[10]
Ceratophyllus garei[10]
Choanotaenia constricta <Unverified Name>[9]
Leptopsylla segnis (European mouse flea)[10]
Leucochloridium macrostoma <Unverified Name>[9]
Plagiorchis elegans[9]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[9]
Xenopsylla hirtipes[10]

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park; Takamanda Forest Reserve; Tsavo National Park;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Avisoft Bioacoustics © Author: Raimund Specht

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Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2British Trust for Ornithology 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 5Ecology of Commanster 6Specialization and interaction strength in a tropical plant-frugivore network differ among forest strata, Matthias Schleuning, Nico Blüthgen, Martina Flörchinger, Julius Braun, H. Martin Schaefer, and Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Ecology, in press. 7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 8STATUS, DISTRIBUTION, AND DIET OF ELEONORA’S FALCON (FALCO ELEONORAE) IN THE CANARY ISLANDS, Leandro De León, Beneharo Rodríguez, Aurelio Martín, Manuel Nogales, Jesús Alonso, and Carlos Izquierdo, Journal of Raptor Research 41(4):331-336 2007 9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 10International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
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