Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Primates > Cercopithecoidea > Cercopithecidae > Macaca > Macaca fascicularis
 

Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque; crab-eating macaque)

Infraspecies

Macaca fascicularis atriceps (Dark-crowned Long-tailed Macaque)
Macaca fascicularis aureus (Myanmar Long-tailed Macaque)
Macaca fascicularis condorensis (Con Son Long-tailed Macaque)
Macaca fascicularis fascicularis (Common Long-tailed Macaque)
Macaca fascicularis fuscus (Simeulue Long-tailed Macaque)
Macaca fascicularis karimondjawae (Karimunjawa Long-tailed Macaque)
Macaca fascicularis lasiae (Lasia Long-tailed Macaque)
Macaca fascicularis philippinensis (Philippine Long-tailed Macaque)
Macaca fascicularis tua (Maratua Long-tailed Macaque)
Macaca fascicularis umbrosus (Nicobar Long-tailed Macaque)

Invasive Species

Macaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque) are native to south-east Asia and have been introduced into Mauritius, Palau (Angaur Island), Hong Kong and parts of Indonesia (Tinjil Island and Papua). They are considered to be invasive, or potentially invasive, throughout their introduced range and management may be needed to prevent them from becoming invasive in areas such as Papua and Tinjil. They are opportunistic mammals and reach higher densities in degraded forest areas, including habitats disturbed by humans. They have few natural predators in their introduced ranges. Macaca fascicularis impact native biodiversity by consuming native plants and competing with birds for fruit and seed resources. In addition, they facilitate the dispersal of seeds of exotic plants. Macaca fascicularis may also impact on the commercial sector through their consuming of agriculturally important plant species and damaging of crops.
View ISSG Record: Macaca fascicularis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
23
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.42
EDGE Score: 2.24

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  14.03 lbs (6.36 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  320 grams
Female Maturity [2]  3 years 4 months
Male Maturity [2]  4 years 2 months
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  40 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  50 %
Diet - Plants [3]  10 %
Forages - Scansorial [3]  100 %
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Gestation [2]  5 months 15 days
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  39 years
Water Biome [1]  Coastal, Brackish Water
Weaning [2]  8 months 2 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo montane rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Java-Bali montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Greater Negros-Panay rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Kinabalu montane alpine meadows Malaysia Indo-Malayan Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Lesser Sundas deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Luzon montane rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luzon rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luzon tropical pine forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Mindanao montane rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mindoro rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Myanmar Coast mangroves India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Mangroves  
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Palawan rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran lowland rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran tropical pine forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sumba deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Timor and Wetar deciduous forests East Timor, Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Java montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Agusan Marsh Wilderness Sanctuary 103806 Philippines  
Ao Phang Nga National Park Marine National Park II 103730 Thailand
Bach Ma National Park II 54733 Viet Nam
Batang Ai National Park II 62638 Sarawak, Malaysia
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Betung Kerihun National Park II 1945086 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park II 836773 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Bukit Kutu Wildlife Reserve IV 4602 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Bukit Tigah Puluh National Park 360578 Sumatra, Indonesia
Bukit Timah Nature Reserve II 411 Singapore
Bung Boraphet Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area III   Thailand  
Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve 123722 Viet Nam  
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Cibodas Biosphere Reserve (Gunung Gede-Pangrango) 142165 Java, Indonesia      
Danau Sentarum National Park 347674 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Dong Hua Sao National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 236373 Laos  
Erawan National Park II 131204 Thailand
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Gunung Niut Wildlife Reserve Nature Reserve IV 409109 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Gunung Palung National Park II 271203 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Hat Chao Mai National Park Marine National Park II 61367 Thailand
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kerinci Seblat National Park II 3463483 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Khao Laem Ya - Mu Ko Samet National Park Marine National Park II 31421 Thailand
Khao Lam Pi - Hat Thai Muang National Marine Park II 17646 Thailand
Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park II 39512 Thailand
Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary IV 182353 Thailand  
Khaoen Si Nakarin National Park II 459154 Thailand
Khlong Lan National Park II 104466 Thailand
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Komodo National Park II 514967 Indonesia  
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Kutai National Park II 560076 East Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Laem Son National Park Marine National Park II 69145 Thailand
Macchabee-Bel Ombre Nature Reserve Biosphere Reserve 8881 Mauritius    
Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve Hunting Reserve 730 Sarawak, Malaysia    
Mu Ko Lanta National Park Marine National Park II 33637 Thailand
Nong Thung Thong Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area   Thailand      
Palawan Biosphere Reserve 2843689 Philippines  
Pang Sida National Park II 211956 Thailand
Pasoh Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Phou Xiengthong National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 281641 Laos  
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 227671 Thailand  
Sai Yok National Park II 235556 Thailand
Taman Negara National Park II 1122273 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Tanjung Puting National Park II 987160 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Thap Lan National Park II 550979 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve VI 688326 Cambodia  
Ulu Temburong National Park II 123279 Brunei Darussalam  
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Xe Pian National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 645271 Laos  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Philippines Philippines No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Wallacea East Timor, Indonesia No

Prey / Diet

Baccaurea racemosa (menteng)[4]
Bischofia javanica (Javanese bishopwood)[5]
Cananga odorata (ilang-ilang)[5]
Carallia brachiata[5]
Cratoxylum sumatranum[5]
Crudia teysmannii[4]
Dalrympelea sphaerocarpa[5]
Dendrocnide sinuata[5]
Dendrocnide stimulans[5]
Diospyros maingayi[4]
Ficus altissima (false banyan)[6]
Ficus annulata[6]
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)[6]
Ficus caulocarpa[6]
Ficus consociata[6]
Ficus crassiramea[6]
Ficus crassiramea subsp. crassiramea[6]
Ficus crassiramea subsp. stupenda[6]
Ficus cucurbitina[6]
Ficus delosyce[6]
Ficus dubia[6]
Ficus inaequifolia[6]
Ficus kerkhoveni[6]
Ficus minahassae (clustertree)[6]
Ficus nervosa subsp. pubinervis[6]
Ficus obscura[6]
Ficus parietalis[6]
Ficus pisocarpa[6]
Ficus reflexa subsp. reflexa[6]
Ficus stolonifera[6]
Ficus stricta[6]
Ficus subcordata[6]
Ficus sumatrana[6]
Ficus sundaica[6]
Ficus trichocarpa[6]
Ficus virens[6]
Ficus xylophylla[6]
Gardenia tubifera[4]
Licania splendens[4]
Lophopetalum javanicum[4]
Macaranga diepenhorstii[5]
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree)[5]
Madhuca motleyana[4]
Mastixia trichotoma[5]
Micromelum minutum[5]
Phoebe declinata[5]
Piper inopinum[5]
Pternandra rostrata[4]
Schradera montana[4]
Scindapsus hederaceus[5]
Scorodocarpus borneensis[5]
Symplocos fasciculata[4]
Tinomiscium petiolare[5]
Uncaria lanosa var. glabrata[4]
Xerospermum noronhianum[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acerodon jubatus (golden-capped fruit bat)3
Aceros cassidix (Knobbed Hornbill)3
Aceros corrugatus (Wrinkled Hornbill)11
Aceros waldeni (Walden's Hornbill)10
Aegithina viridissima (Green Iora)3
Alcippe brunneicauda (Brown Fulvetta)4
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)10
Alophoixus finschii (Finsch's Bulbul)4
Alophoixus pallidus (Puff-throated Bulbul)3
Alophoixus phaeocephalus (Yellow-bellied Bulbul)11
Anorrhinus galeritus (Bushy-crested Hornbill)17
Anorrhinus tickelli (Brown Hornbill)3
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)5
Anthracoceros malayanus (Black Hornbill)19
Arctictis binturong (Binturong)7
Berenicornis comatus (White-crowned Hornbill)3
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)3
Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Hornbill)15
Callosciurus adamsi (ear-spot squirrel)7
Callosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel)3
Callosciurus nigrovittatus (black-striped squirrel)6
Callosciurus notatus (plantain squirrel)13
Callosciurus prevostii (Prevost's squirrel)21
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)21
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)19
Chalcophaps indica (Common Emerald Dove)5
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)11
Chloropsis cyanopogon (Lesser Green Leafbird)16
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)19
Corvus enca (Slender-billed Crow)4
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)3
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)3
Dicaeum chrysorrheum (Yellow-vented Flowerpecker)10
Dicaeum concolor (Plain Flowerpecker)6
Dicaeum trigonostigma (Orange-bellied Flowerpecker)9
Ducula badia (Mountain Imperial Pigeon)6
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)4
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)4
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)15
Hylobates agilis (agile gibbon)4
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)20
Hylobates moloch (silvery gibbon)4
Iole olivacea (Buff-vented Bulbul)13
Iole propinqua (Grey-eyed Bulbul)3
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)20
Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul)7
Loriculus galgulus (Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot)9
Macaca nemestrina (pigtail macaque)5
Macaca nigra (Celebes crested macaque)5
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)19
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)20
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)3
Megalaima henricii (Yellow-crowned Barbet)16
Megalaima lineata (Lineated Barbet)3
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)22
Megalaima rafflesii (Red-crowned Barbet)14
Muntiacus muntjak (Indian muntjac)3
Nasalis larvatus (proboscis monkey)8
Oriolus chinensis (Black-naped Oriole)4
Oriolus xanthonotus (Dark-throated Oriole)7
Penelopides panini (Tarictic Hornbill)3
Phapitreron leucotis (White-eared Brown Dove)3
Platysmurus leucopterus (Black Magpie)5
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)21
Presbytis comata (grizzled leaf monkey)3
Presbytis rubicunda (red leaf monkey)3
Presbytis thomasi (north Sumatran leaf monkey)4
Prionochilus maculatus (Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker)9
Prionochilus percussus (Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker)14
Prionochilus thoracicus (Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker)8
Prionochilus xanthopygius (Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker)8
Pteropus vampyrus (large flying fox)3
Ptilinopus jambu (Jambu Fruit Dove)5
Pycnonotus atriceps (Black-headed Bulbul)11
Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)19
Pycnonotus cyaniventris (Grey-bellied Bulbul)10
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)10
Pycnonotus eutilotus (Puff-backed Bulbul)16
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)6
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus plumosus (Olive-winged Bulbul)7
Pycnonotus simplex (Cream-vented Bulbul)7
Pycnonotus squamatus (Scaly-breasted Bulbul)3
Ratufa affinis (pale giant squirrel)8
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)12
Rhinoplax vigil (Helmeted Hornbill)13
Rhyticeros undulatus (Wreathed Hornbill)8
Sundasciurus tenuis (slender squirrel)3
Symphalangus syndactylus (siamang)7
Trachypithecus obscurus (dusky leaf monkey)7
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)14
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)19
Treron olax (Little Green Pigeon)4
Tricholestes criniger (Hairy-backed Bulbul)6
Tupaia glis (Common Treeshrew)7
Tupaia minor (Pygmy Treeshrew)8

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Bertiella studeri <Unverified Name>[7]
Bordetella bronchiseptica (Kennel cough)[8]
Gastrodiscoides hominis <Unverified Name>[7]
Haplorchis yokogawai[7]
Pedicinus eurygaster[9]
Pedicinus obtusus[9]
Pneumocystis jirovecii[8]
Rhipicephalus annulatus (Cattle tick)[8]
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)[8]
Watsonius watsoni <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Bowmanville Zoological Park
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Curraghs Wildlife Park
DSI Givskud Zoo
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Fundacion Zoologico Santacruz
Hanoi Zoological Gardens
Jászberény Zool.& Botanical Garden
Jyllands Park Zoo
Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden
Moscow Zoological Park
Municipal Independent Org. Roev Ruchei
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Odsherreds Zoo Dyrepark A/S
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Ragunan Zoological Park
Schmutzer Primate Centre, Ragunan Zoo
Shepreth Wildlife Park
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Songkhla Zoo
Szeged Zoo
Taipei Zoo
Tygerberg Zoopark
Zoobotanico de Jerez
Zoologischer Garten Basel
Zoologischer Garten Saarbruecken

Range Map

Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Feeding Ecology of the Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia, Carey P. Yeager, International Journal of Primatology, Vol 17, No. 1 1996, pp. 51-62
5Fruit Preferences of Four Sympatric Primate Species at Ketambe, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, Peter S. Ungar, International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1995
6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access