Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Primates > Cercopithecoidea > Cercopithecidae > Macaca > Macaca mulatta
 

Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey; rhesus macaque)

Synonyms: Inuus sancti-johannis; Inuus sanctijohannis; Macaca mulatta mcmahoni; Macaca nipalensis; Macaca oinops; Macaca siamica; Macacus lasiotus; Macacus rhesus villosus; Macacus tcheliensis; Macacus vestitus; Pithecus littoralis; Simia erythraea; Simia fulvus; Simia rhesus

Wikipedia Abstract

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys. It is listed as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and its tolerance of a broad range of habitats. Native to South, Central and Southeast Asia, troops of Macaca mulatta inhabit a great variety of habitats from grasslands to arid and forested areas, but also close to human settlements.
View Wikipedia Record: Macaca mulatta

Invasive Species

Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaques) are very popular as laboratory animals and are used for biomedical and behavioural research in the internatonal trade. In Puerto Rico, the introduction and trade with any species of primates is lllegal. Wild populations of rhesus macaques represent a potential threat to humans, due to their strength and agressiveness, and that they carry diseases that can be transmitted to humans. Rhesus macaques invade fruit farms and eat the produce. Being omnivorous and intelligent, they will catch and eat natives birds (and their eggs), lizards, snakes and other species.
View ISSG Record: Macaca mulatta

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
19
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.47
EDGE Score: 2.01

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  18.16 lbs (8.24 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  1.02 lbs (464 g)
Female Maturity [2]  3 years 4 months
Male Maturity [2]  5 years 6 months
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Diet [1]  Omnivore
Gestation [2]  5 months 15 days
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  40 years
Weaning [2]  9 months 22 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Myanmar Coast mangroves India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Mangroves  
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests India, Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle temperate forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Red River freshwater swamp forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Ailaoshan Nature Reserve V 332544 Yunnan, China  
Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park II 421336 Myanmar  
Bach Ma National Park II 54733 Viet Nam
Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve V 462837 Yunnan, China  
Bandhavgarh National Park II 89210 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Bawangling National Nature Reserve V 10693 Hainan, China  
Bitahai Nature Reserve V 49655 Yunnan, China  
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Chail Sanctuary IV 31333 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Changshanerhai Nature Reserve V 139448 Yunnan, China  
Churdhar Sanctuary IV 19253 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Daweishan Nature Reserve V 122415 Yunnan, China  
Doi Pha Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 144177 Thailand  
Erawan National Park II 131204 Thailand
Fanjingshan Nature Reserve V 86145 Guizhou, China  
Fujian Wuyishan Nature Reserve V 206754 Fujian, China  
Gaoligong Mountain National Nature Reserve V 1245925 Yunnan, China  
Hin Namno National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 214373 Laos  
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Indravati Tiger Reserve   Chhattishgarh, India      
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Mae Tuen Wildlife Sanctuary IV 307947 Thailand  
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Maolan Biosphere Reserve V 79467 Guizhou, China  
Medog Nature Reserve   China      
Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) National Park II 275416 Nepal
Nam Kading National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 419016 Laos  
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Nanda Devi National Park II 161583 Uttaranchal, India  
Nujiang Nature Reserve   China      
Nuristan Reserve National Park 1419914 Afghanistan  
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Phou Dene Dinh National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 463651 Laos  
Phou Khao Khoay National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 447452 Laos  
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Phan National Park II 176082 Thailand
Pidaung Wildlife Sanctuary III 244241 Myanmar  
Pong Lake Sanctuary IV 61391 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Ranthambore National Park II 137162 Rajasthan, India
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Salawin National Park II 400497 Thailand
Sanjay Gandhi National Park II 439343 Maharashtra, India
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary IV 51099 Maharashtra, India  
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Tianmushan Biosphere Reserve 47993 China  
Tundah Sanctuary IV 26333 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Ujung Kulon National Park II 313466 Java, Indonesia    
Wolong Nature Reserve V 826140 Sichuan, China  
Xe Bang Nouane National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 322522 Laos  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No

Prey / Diet

Abies pindrow (West Himalayan Fir)[3]
Ficus benghalensis (Indian banyan)[4]
Ficus minahassae (clustertree)[4]
Ficus religiosa (peepul tree)[4]
Juglans regia (English walnut)[3]
Oenothera rosea (rose eveningprimrose)[3]
Pinus wallichiana (Bhutan pine)[3]
Populus ciliata[3]
Prunus cornuta[3]
Toona sinensis (Chinese Mahogany)[3]
Ulmus wallichiana (Himalayan Elm)[3]
Viburnum foetens[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres cristatellus (Crested Myna)1
Acridotheres fuscus (Jungle Myna)1
Acridotheres ginginianus (Bank Myna)2
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)2
Agropsar philippensis (Chestnut-cheeked Starling)1
Anthracoceros coronatus (Malabar Pied Hornbill)2
Axis axis (chital)3
Axis porcinus (hog deer)1
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)3
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)1
Coracina novaehollandiae (Black-faced Cuckooshrike)1
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)2
Corvus splendens (House Crow)1
Cuculus varius (common hawk-cuckoo)1
Cynopterus brachyotis (lesser short-nosed fruit bat)1
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)3
Dendrocitta formosae (Grey Treepie)1
Dendrocitta vagabunda (Rufous Treepie)2
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)1
Dicaeum erythrorhynchos (Pale-billed Flowerpecker)1
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)1
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)2
Galloperdix spadicea (Red Spurfowl)1
Gracupica contra (Pied Myna)1
Hoolock hoolock hoolock (hoolock gibbon)3
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)1
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)1
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)1
Macaca nigra (Celebes crested macaque)1
Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)1
Macaca silenus (liontail macaque)1
Macroglossus minimus (lesser long-tongued fruit bat)1
Megalaima asiatica (Blue-throated Barbet)1
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)2
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)2
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)3
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)3
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)2
Moschus chrysogaster (alpine musk deer)1
Muntiacus muntjak (Indian muntjac)1
Ocyceros birostris (Indian Grey Hornbill)2
Ocyceros gingalensis (Sri Lankan Grey Hornbill)1
Ocyceros griseus (Malabar Grey Hornbill)1
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)2
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)1
Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (Asian Palm Civet)1
Pastor roseus (Rosy Starling)2
Pavo cristatus (Indian Peafowl)1
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)1
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)1
Psittacula longicauda (Long-tailed Parakeet)1
Pteropus alecto (black flying fox)1
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)3
Pycnonotus aurigaster (Sooty-headed Bulbul)1
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus luteolus (White-browed Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus xantholaemus (Yellow-throated Bulbul)1
Pygathrix nemaeus (Douc langur)2
Ratufa indica (Indian giant squirrel)1
Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian rhinoceros)2
Rhyticeros narcondami (Narcondam Hornbill)1
Rhyticeros subruficollis (Plain-pouched Hornbill)1
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)1
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)2
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)3
Semnopithecus vetulus (purple-faced leaf monkey)1
Sturnia malabarica (Chestnut-tailed Starling)1
Sturnia pagodarum (Brahminy Starling)1
Sus scrofa (wild boar)2
Tephrodornis pondicerianus (Common Woodshrike)1
Trachypithecus pileatus (capped leaf monkey)2
Treron phoenicopterus (Yellow-footed Green Pigeon)2
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)2
Viverricula indica (Small Indian Civet)1
Vulpes bengalensis (Bengal Fox)1
Zosterops palpebrosus (Oriental White-eye)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito)[5]
Anatrichosoma cutaneum <Unverified Name>[6]
Ancylostoma duodenale <Unverified Name>[6]
Ascaris lumbricoides <Unverified Name>[6]
Bertiella studeri <Unverified Name>[6]
Bordetella bronchiseptica (Kennel cough)[7]
Ctenocephalides orientis[8]
Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm)[6]
Dirofilaria magnilarvatum <Unverified Name>[6]
Enterobius bipapillatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Enterobius macaci <Unverified Name>[6]
Gastrodiscoides hominis <Unverified Name>[6]
Multiceps multiceps[6]
Necator americanus (hookworm)[6]
Oesophagostomum aculeatum <Unverified Name>[6]
Oesophagostomum apiostomum <Unverified Name>[6]
Oesophagostomum bifurcum <Unverified Name>[6]
Oesophagostomum macacae <Unverified Name>[6]
Paragonimus africanus <Unverified Name>[6]
Pedicinus eurygaster[5]
Pedicinus obtusus[5]
Phaneropsolus bonnei <Unverified Name>[6]
Physalopteriata schulzi <Unverified Name>[6]
Schistosoma japonicum <Unverified Name>[6]
Setaria digitata <Unverified Name>[6]
Streptopharagus armatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Strongyloides fuelleborni <Unverified Name>[6]
Taenia solium <Unverified Name>[6]
Ternidens deminutus <Unverified Name>[6]
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)[7]
Trichocephalus cynocephalus <Unverified Name>[6]
Watsonius macaci <Unverified Name>[6]
Watsonius noci <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Al Ain Zoo
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Aurangabad Municipal Zoo
Bannerghatta Biological Park
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Cleveland Metroparks Zoomulatta
Dept. of National Zoological Gardensmulatta
Dierenpark 'De Vleut' (Zoo Best)
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Fundacion Zoologico Santacruz
Giza Zoological Garden
Guadalajara Zoo
Hanoi Zoological Gardens
Inokashira Park Zoo
International Animal Exchange, Inc.
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Jawaharlal Nehru Biological Park
Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kamala Nehru Prani Sanghrahalay Zoo
Kharkiv Zoo
Longleat Safari Park
Lucknow Zoological Park
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Miskolc Zoo/Állatkert és Kultúrpark
 mulatta
Moscow Zoological Park
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parque Zoologico Jaime Duque - Bogota
Planete Sauvage
Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventure
Rotterdam Zoo
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
Sakkarbaugh Zoo, Junagadhmulatta
Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park
Tbilisi Zoo
Tiergarten Heidelberg
Tygerberg Zoopark
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Zoo Dresden GmbH
Zoo of Acadiana
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnice
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig

Range Map

Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Ecology of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Northwest Pakistan, S. J. Goldstein and A. F. Richard, International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 10, No. 6, 1989, pp. 531-567 4"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 7Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2. 8International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access