Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Lagomorpha > Leporidae > Lepus > Lepus californicus
 

Lepus californicus (Black-tailed Jackrabbit; black-tailed jack rabbit)

Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus), also known as the American desert hare, is a common hare of the western United States and Mexico, where it is found at elevations from sea level to up to 10,000 feet (3,000 m). Reaching a length of about 2 feet (61 cm), and a weight from 3 to 6 pounds (1.4 to 2.7 kg), the black-tailed jackrabbit is the third largest North American hare, after the antelope jackrabbit and the white-tailed jackrabbit.
View Wikipedia Record: Lepus californicus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
1
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
15
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.63
EDGE Score: 1.73

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  9.20 lbs (4.18 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  84 grams
Female Maturity [1]  8 months 3 days
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Gestation [1]  44 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  4
Maximum Longevity [1]  12 years
Weaning [1]  41 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Agate Fossil Beds National Monument V 4731 Nebraska, United States
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Amistad National Recreation Area   Texas, United States
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Aztec Ruins National Monument V 321 New Mexico, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Beaver Creek Biosphere Reserve 275028 Arizona, United States  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Bishop Pine Preserve   California, United States  
Bryce Canyon National Park II 36348 Utah, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carrizo Plain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7550 California, United States  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Chiricahua National Monument V 1421 Arizona, United States
Coachella Valley Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 8106 California, United States
Colorado National Monument III 20420 Colorado, United States
Cosumnes River Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 2138 California, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge Ia   Idaho, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
El Morro National Monument V 960 New Mexico, United States
Fairfield Osborn Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 190 California, United States
Fort Davis National Historic Site   Texas, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Hamilton Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 52 California, United States  
Heath and Marjorie Angelo Coast Range Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7008 California, United States
Hovenweep National Monument V 770 Colorado, Utah, United States
Jackson Demonstration State Forest   California, United States
Jepson Prairie Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 1553 California, United States
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Meredith National Recreation Area V   Texas, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lanphere-Christensen Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 471 California, United States  
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Montezuma Castle National Monument V 872 Arizona, United States
Mount Tamalpais State Park 6365 California, United States
Muir Woods National Monument V 492 California, United States
Natural Bridges National Monument III 7412 Utah, United States
Navajo National Monument V 604 Arizona, United States
Nipomo Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3725 California, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Paine Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 2965 California, United States    
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center 6101 California, United States
Pinnacles National Monument V 2869 California, United States
Pipe Spring National Monument V 41 Arizona, United States
Pixley Vernal Pools Preserve 37 California, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo Biosphere Reserve 353161 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Michilia Biosphere Reserve VI 23405 Durango, Mexico  
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Ring Mountain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 438 California, United States  
Rockville Hills Regional Park   California, United States  
Saguaro National Park II 11686 Arizona, United States
Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument V 1081 New Mexico, United States
San Dimas Biosphere Reserve 17161 California, United States  
San Francisco Peninsular Watershed County Wildlife Refuge or Management Area 30320 California, United States  
San Joaquin Biosphere Reserve 4527 California, United States  
Sand Ridge Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 285 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shortgrass Steppe LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Colorado, United States
Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument V 3049 Arizona, United States
Tonto National Monument V 1123 Arizona, United States
Vina Plains Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 2056 California, United States
Walnut Canyon National Monument V 3386 Arizona, United States
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wupatki National Monument III 36098 Arizona, United States
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Agropyron desertorum (clustered wheat grass)[3]
Artemisia tridentata (sagebrush)[4]
Atriplex confertifolia (shadscale)[4]
Avena sativa (oats)[3]
Bouteloua aristidoides (needle grama)[3]
Elymus smithii (Western Wheatgrass)[3]
Eurotia lanata (winterfat)[4]
Gutierrezia pomariensis (broom snakeweed)[4]
Halogeton glomeratus (saltlover)[4]
Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)[3]
Larrea tridentata (creosotebush)[4]
Medicago sativa (yellow alfalfa)[3]
Sophora nuttalliana (silky sophora)[3]
Sphaeralcea coccinea (scarlet globemallow)[3]
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)[4]
Triticum aestivum (common wheat)[3]
Vulpia octoflora (pullout grass)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Brachylagus idahoensis (Pygmy Rabbit)1
Chaetodipus nelsoni (Nelson's pocket mouse)1
Cynomys ludovicianus (black-tailed prairie dog)1
Dipodomys microps (chisel-toothed kangaroo rat)1
Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat)4
Dipodomys spectabilis (banner-tailed kangaroo rat)1
Lemmiscus curtatus (sagebrush vole)2
Lepus townsendii (White-tailed Jackrabbit)1
Neotoma cinerea (bushy-tailed woodrat)1
Neotoma lepida (desert woodrat)2
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)2
Reithrodontomys megalotis (western harvest mouse)3
Thomomys bottae (Botta's pocket gopher)1
Xerospermophilus tereticaudus (round-tailed ground squirrel)1

Predators

Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)[3]
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[4]
Blaesoxipha plinthopyga[3]
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)[4]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[3]
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)[3]
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)[4]
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)[3]
Canis latrans (Coyote)[4]
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)[3]
Dermestes marmoratus[3]
Falco mexicanus (Prairie Falcon)[3]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[3]
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)[4]
Musca domestica (house fly)[3]
Omorgus suberosus (Grey skin beetle)[3]
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)[5]
Vulpes macrotis (Kit Fox)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aetheca wagneri[7]
Biogastranema leporis <Unverified Name>[8]
Cediopsylla inaequalis inaequalis[7]
Echidnophaga gallinacea (sticktight flea)[7]
Epitedia stanfordi[7]
Euchoplopsyllus glacialis affinis[7]
Euchoplopsyllus glacialis foxi[7]
Euchoplopsyllus glacialis lynx[7]
Eumolpianus eumolpi eumolpi[7]
Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke)[8]
Haemodipsus setoni[3]
Hasstilesia tricolor[8]
Hoplopsyllus anomalus (rodent flea)[7]
Meringis parkeri[7]
Mosgovoyia pectinata <Unverified Name>[8]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[7]
Odontopsyllus dentatus[7]
Opisodasys keeni[7]
Oropsylla hirsuta[7]
Oropsylla montana[7]
Passalurus ambiguus[8]
Raillietina salmoni <Unverified Name>[8]
Raillietina selfi <Unverified Name>[8]
Rauschia triangularis <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia macrocystis <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia multiceps <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia pisiformis[8]
Taenia serialis <Unverified Name>[8]
Thrassis bacchi caducus[7]
Trichostrongylus calcaratus <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichuris sylvilagi <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Moonridge Animal Park
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo

Range Map

Middle America; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 4Lepus californicus, Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 530, pp. 1-10 (1996) 5Feeding ecology of North American gopher snakes (Pituophis catenifer, Colubridae), JAVIER A. RODRÍGUEZ-ROBLES, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2002, 77, 165–183 64.5 Kit fox, Vulpes macrotis, R. List and B.L. Cypher, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp. 7International Flea Database 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access