Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Lagomorpha > Leporidae > Lepus > Lepus townsendii
 

Lepus townsendii (White-tailed Jackrabbit; white-tailed jack rabbit)

Wikipedia Abstract

The white-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii), also known as the prairie hare and the white jack, is a species of hare found in western North America. Like all hares and rabbits, it is a member of the family Leporidae of order Lagomorpha. It is a solitary individual except where several males court a female in the breeding season. Litters of four to five young are born in a form, a shallow depression in the ground, hidden among vegetation. This jackrabbit has two described subspecies: L.
View Wikipedia Record: Lepus townsendii

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
18
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.95
EDGE Score: 1.94

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  6.69 lbs (3.04 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  94 grams
Female Maturity [1]  11 months 3 days
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Gestation [1]  39 days
Litter Size [1]  4
Litters / Year [1]  3
Maximum Longevity [3]  8 years
Nocturnal [2]  Yes
Weaning [1]  27 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park II 12551 Colorado, United States
Cedar Breaks National Monument III 6111 Utah, United States
Cedar Creek LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV   Minnesota, United States
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Devils Tower National Monument V 1361 Wyoming, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Knife River Indian Villages National Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1756 North Dakota, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Pipestone National Monument V 326 Minnesota, United States
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Shortgrass Steppe LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Colorado, United States
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Agropyron desertorum (clustered wheat grass)[4]
Artemisia frigida (Fringed sagewort)[3]
Bassia scoparia subsp. densiflora (Mexican burningbush)[3]
Bouteloua aristidoides (needle grama)[4]
Carex obtusata (obtuse sedge)[3]
Castilleja integra (squawfeather)[3]
Chrysothamnus parryi[3]
Elymus smithii (Western Wheatgrass)[3]
Eurotia lanata (winterfat)[3]
Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)[4]
Holodiscus discolor (creambush)[3]
Medicago sativa (yellow alfalfa)[3]
Oenothera laciniata (cut-leaved evening primrose)[4]
Ratibida columnifera (prairie coneflower)[4]
Sophora nuttalliana (silky sophora)[4]
Sphaeralcea coccinea (scarlet globemallow)[4]
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)[4]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[3]
Taraxacum tenejapense[4]
Triticum aestivum (common wheat)[3]
Vulpia octoflora (pullout grass)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)1
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)1
Adelphocoris lineolatus (alfalfa plant bug)1
Anas acuta (Northern Pintail)1
Andrena barbilabris1
Andrena clarkella (Clark's Mining Bee)1
Anthophora abrupta (miner bee)1
Anthophora plumipes (Spring Flower Bee)1
Antilocapra americana (pronghorn)1
Apis mellifera (honey bee)1
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)1
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)1
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)1
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)1
Canis latrans (Coyote)1
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)1
Chlamydatus pullus1
Closterotomus norvegicus (strawberry bug)1
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)1
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)1
Cynomys ludovicianus (black-tailed prairie dog)1
Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat)1
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)1
Glaucopsyche lygdamus (palos verdes blue butterfly)1
Lemmiscus curtatus (sagebrush vole)3
Leptopterna dolabrata (meadow plant bug)1
Lepus californicus (Black-tailed Jackrabbit)1
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)1
Lygus rugulipennis2
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)1
Marmota flaviventris (yellow-bellied marmot)2
Martes americana (American Marten)1
Mayetiola destructor (hessian fly)1
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)1
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)1
Microtus townsendii (Townsend's vole)1
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)1
Neotoma cinerea (bushy-tailed woodrat)2
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)1
Onychomys leucogaster (northern grasshopper mouse)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)1
Phanacis taraxaci (dandelion gall wasp)1
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)1
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)1
Spinus spinus (Eurasian Siskin)1
Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)1
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)1
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)1
Tamias minimus (least chipmunk)1
Tamias ruficaudus (red-tailed chipmunk)1
Thomomys talpoides (northern pocket gopher)2
Urocitellus brunneus (Idaho ground squirrel)1
Urocitellus columbianus (Columbian ground squirrel)2
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)1

Predators

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[5]
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)[4]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[4]
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)[5]
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)[4]
Canis latrans (Coyote)[3]
Canis lupus (Wolf)[3]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[4]
Lynx canadensis (lynx)[3]
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)[3]
Martes americana (American Marten)[3]
Vulpes velox (Swift Fox)[6]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Cediopsylla inaequalis[3]
Cediopsylla inaequalis inaequalis[7]
Cediopsylla inaequalis interrupta[7]
Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mountain wood tick)[3]
Euchoplopsyllus glacialis affinis[7]
Haemodipsus setoni[4]
Odontopsyllus dentatus[7]
Oropsylla rupestris[7]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[7]
Taenia pisiformis[8]
Taenia serialis <Unverified Name>[8]

Range Map

North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Lepus townsendii, Burton K. Lim, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 288, pp. 1-6 (1987) 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5FOOD HABITS AND NEST CHARACTERISTICS OF BREEDING RAPTORS IN SOUTHWESTERN WYOMING, Patricia A. MacLaren, Stanley H. Anderson, and Douglas E. Runde, Great Basin Naturalist Vol. 48, No. 4 pp. 548-553 (1988) 6SPECIES ASSESSMENT FOR SWIFT FOX (VULPES VELOX) IN WYOMING, DARBY N. DARK-SMILEY AND DOUGLAS A. KEINATH, prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, December 2003 7International Flea Database 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access